Urban economics

Urbanization indicates the economic development of a country. Sustainable development is the need of the hour in all types of activities. Although the path of sustainability is a difficult one, yet it is approachable if pursued in an appropriate way. Sustainable transportation system ensures building of a society that acts as backbone, which supports economic growth through assisting people access their jobs and services easily. If the city is well-planned and laid out properly, urbanization will lessen the overall pollution levels and will preserve the surrounding areas, but unfortunately, most the cities set an example of haphazard development that has led to environmental degradation.This paper aims to examine the detrimental effects of transportation in enhancing global warming and ways to reduce it. The process of speedy urbanization due to growing population levels and their concentration in outsized cities have led to the sprawl of cities, as called by usurban sprawl. These mega cities mark the most significant change brought about by human creatures. Cities form a network of linkages that expand ahead of their own boundaries causing environmental damages and their impacts outside urban areas. One of the most significant changes in natural environment is due to the urban transportation system. Increasing number of cars have provided immense facility to the individuals to access their jobs, educational institutes, shopping malls or any other place easily and on their own, but the flip side of this facility is the environmental damage brought about by the unsustainable transportation patterns. ROLE OF AUTOMOBILES IN GLOBAL WARMING Now days, automobiles are an essential part of daily life. They have shaped our culture and landscape. The industries that build cars serve as key part of the economy of the country. The automobile is not without its faults, but they often are concealed by the styling, performance and other features that make today’s vehicles so desirable. Still, when a product is so widely used, its faults can add up to massive unwanted side effects like global warming. Global warming is the most current environmental issue in many countries of the world. Motor vehicles play a major part in what scientists call the most serious environmental problem the world faces. The automobile’s main contribution comes from the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted as the engine burns fuel. The greenhouse gases are released from numerous sources that cause global warming. Any single contribution may seem small in proportion to the world total, but collectively it becomes a problem of vast scale. To address a problem of such vast scale requires international agreements and national policies. But making good on such commitments will require changes in how we manage every activity that contributes to the problem. The sources which contribute most to global warming should be identified in order to know that where and how much emission should be reduced. [1] The disproportionate impact of U.S. cars and light trucks An automobile which means personal motor vehicles, including light trucks such as pickups and vans emit roughly 10% of global (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels, which are the main form of greenhouse gas pollution. American automobiles have a disproportionate impact: U.S. cars are driven further each year and burn more fuel per mile than the international average. The United States has 5% of the world’s population and 30% of the world’s automobiles, but it contributes 45% of the world’s automotive (CO2) emissions. In 2004, U.S. cars and light trucks emitted 314 million metric tons of carbon-equivalent (MMTc). That equals the amount of carbon in a coal train 50,000 miles long—enough to stretch 17 times between New York and San Francisco. In fact, the amount of (CO2) emitted from oil used for transportation in the United States is similar to the amount from coal used to generate electricity. [1] SHIFTING FROM PRIVATE TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT