The Positive and Negative Effects of European Colonization of South Eastern Australia

This earliest establishment however, faced relatively tough conditions because of the overall land quality around Sydney Cove area. The second fleet arrived in 1790 to offer much relief for the settlers of the first settlement and greatly increased the overall presence of Britain on Australian soil. The overall purpose of establishing the colonies in Australia was mostly based upon the fact that British lost most of its American colonies in war of Independence. As such there was an emphasis on founding the replacement colonies at other places in order to continue to fulfill the political and economic objectives of the British Government. Besides the country was also considered as suitable for the purpose of plantation while at the same time, this colony could also provide compensation to British Loyalist Americans. This paper will however, attempt to explore and analyze the overall negative and positive impact of the European Colonization in the South Easter Australian region. Colonialism- a general introduction Colonialism has a rich history as nations attempted to expand themselves beyond their physical borders by establishing colonies in other areas. Under this mechanism the indigenous population is either directly ruled or displaced to reduce the overall resistance to the power. England was one of the main countries which have established colonies across the whole globe to achieve different political as well as economic objectives. (Osterhammel 1997) One of the key impacts of the colonization of the territories was the systematic use and exploitation of these territories’ resources, markets as well as labor. As such due to these factors important socio-political and cultural changes took place in these areas which virtually eroded the original culture of these areas. It is important to note that the colonies which were established as a result of this were different in nature wherein nations either attempted to establish settler colonies, plantation colonies, dependencies as well as the trading posts. These were established in order to achieve larger socio-political objectives besides ensuring that the overall power of a nation remains a dominating factor in world politics. Countries like Australia and New Zealand were settler colonies established with a major aim of transporting large number of people from the parent countries to these host colonies. However, the inter-mingling of the different races created strong health related issues. In many instances almost half of the race died of the different diseases. Aborigines of the region mostly died either through conflict with the Europeans or out of the diseases. European Settlements in Australia The early evidence for the attempts made by Europeans to settle in Australia dates back to 1606 when Dutch attempted to occupy the land. They were the first to sail through to this land however, they were heavily confronted by the Aborigines therefore they had to leave without settling there. It was also because of this reason that Dutch only made one landing on the soil of Australia and did not attempted to settle there. During 1770, British tried for the first time to sail through the area and attempt to establish a proper base in the region. In 1770, Capitan James Cook sailed around this region and named it as New South Wales. Cook also claimed the land in the name of England while at the same time ignoring the Aborigines.