The influence of the european culture in management leadership style of european managers working in Asian countries focusing on

The approach used in leadership and management therefore determines the outcome of the various decisions made. However, all these are influenced by factors such as the immediate as well as external environment, the structure of the organisation or institution, business culture and the relationships which exist between the management and the subordinates (Marcus et al, 2003). Management and leadership are inherently dependent on each other although leadership is a component of management and success in any decision made is influenced by the balance between the two elements (Hofstede, 1991). Management styles are influenced by the leadership styles employed in the running of business entities. There are four fundamental leadership styles although there are several others which are based on the particular management approaches used. These include democratic, laissez faire, autocratic and participative leadership styles. Democratic, laissez faire and participative management leadership styles involve staff while autocratic style is purely based on the management making decisions for the business or company (Marcus et al, 2003). … Asia in specific India has been receptive to the European leadership styles compared to other parts of Asia and African countries. According to Ralston et al (1993), the increase in international affairs has led to the convergence and divergence debate where organizations take strategic positions in different ways. The authors point out that convergence thesis is where economic ideology is the main driver of cultural values for example exposure to European business leads to the adoption of European culture. Thus culture is treated as something accidental that does not have any prior planning for it to take place. On the other hand, Hosfede, (1980, 1991), Adler (2002) point out that a divergence perspective recognizes a country and its cultural differences, they emphasize that culture plays a big role in influencing the way management is conducted. Ward et al (1999) and Ralston et al (1993), indicate that when two cultures meets and equally exchange ideas and values, that is cross –divergence, this type of divergence recognizes the importance of national culture and economic ideology and the synergy between the two when an individual incorporates both national culture and economic ideology influences synergistically to form a unique value system that is different from the value set supported by either national culture or economic ideology (Ralston et al, 1997: 183). According to the Centre fro Comparative Management Studies (2011) the relationship between culture and leadership styles and agrees with the notion that culture has a small but significant impact on the leadership styles of an individual , other factors that affect an individuals leadership styles are the