Terrorist Attacks on the US

Rather, they have left their undesirable harmful effects on a lot of countries around the world. In fact, it would not be an over exaggeration to say there is hardly any country that has not impacted by these attacks in one way or another. Pre September 11 Attacks: After the collapse of socialism and the remaining of capitalism as the only political and economic power in the world, several theories emerged in an attempt to predict the kind of conflict that may emerge in the future. The end of History and the clash of civilizations are among the various theories that tried to put a framework for international relationships in the future. Francis Fukuama was the first political analyst to coin the phrase End of History, in his article that bore the same name and published in 1989. In that article, Fukuyama argued that there is a remarkable contemporary achievement concerning the legitimacy of liberal democracy, constituting a system of government. This system, which had emerged in the eighties throughout the world, replaced all other known ideologies like hereditary monarchy, fascism. Accordingly, Fukuyama proposed that liberal democracy may constitute the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution. Thus, he explicitly introduced liberal democracy to be the final and most ideal form of human government, which human minds can not think of any better form of government. This leads him to think that this current status and ideologies marks the end of history. That’s because this form of government is free from any defects, unlike previous ideologies, which were characterized by various defects and irrationalities that led to their eventual collapse. Consequently, Francis Fukuyama argued that 1989 represented the triumph of market capitalism and liberal democratic ideology. Since then, market power was set to become the modernization project of choice for all countries of the world. So, the future of the international system, according to Fukuyama and many other political analysts, was to be characterized by the gradual democratization of market-democratic institutions, policies, values and culture. Liberal institutionalism would replace international anarchy by the international rule of law. Thus, it is believed that the ‘End of History’ paradigm was upon us. the triumph of Western-style modernity was set to create one universal world civilization (Herd, Graeme P. Martin, Weber). In our contemporary world, it is obvious that the world market has fully dominated the role of the state in most countries of the world. There have been many economic and political analysts who believe that states are loosing their traditional roles in the face of the growing international market. An example of these economists is Herman M. Schwartz. Drawing on an assessment of the historical evolution of the world economy, Schwartz shows how the 21st century world has come to resemble the late 19th century, in which markets typically overwhelmed state policies, more than the mid-20th century in which states were often able to control or contain markets (Strange). In that sense, globalization has been playing a major role in this transformation process from state-based markets into free ones. Schwartz shows that globalization is a much more complicated term and more multi-faceted phenomenon than its current protagonists generally argue. He also believes that globalization provides a clear account of the complex interdependence of modern states and