Scientific Breakthrough The Telephone

This was followed by his invention of the ‘Liquid Transmitter’ on the tenth March, 1876, which carried the memorable words, Mr. Watson, come here, I want you.In the list of scientific breakthroughs which have transformed the life of man through the ages, the invention of the telephone figures in letters of gold. The word telephone is derived from the Greek words ‘tele’ – from afar and ‘phone’ – voiced sound. While it was the indisputable genius of Alexander Graham Bell which made this miracle possible, the invention of the telephone was but the culmination of a long line of scientific creativity and innovation, pioneered over the decades. The beginning can be traced to 1729, when the English chemist, Stephen Gray, transmitted electricity over a wire. The next step was the discovery of electromagnetism by Christian Oersted in 1820, followed in the next year by Michael Faraday’s discovery of induction. In 1830, Joseph Henry invented an efficient electromagnet and demonstrated the transmission of the first electric signal. Next came Samuel Morse’s path-breaking telegraph in 1837. Bell attempted to refine Morse’s system so that multiple messages could be transmitted simultaneously over a single wire, which led to his invention of the telephone (Farley, 2006).Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on March 3, 1847, into a family of specialists in the mechanism of speech. His grandfather was the inventor of a system to rectify speech disabilities and his father authored a creative sign language called ‘Visible Speech,’ which was the first international phonetic alphabet. The spark of creativity was visible in Bell right from his boyhood, when he built a ‘speaking robot,’ made of gutta-percha and India rubber. Bell was educated at the universities of Edinburgh and London, gathering the rudiments of anatomy, music, electricity and telegraphy.