Raphaels Knowledge from School of Athens

Around 3500BC, written language was invented, followed by postal services in 900BC and books in 100AD. By 1450, Europe had newspapers made easier by the typewriter in 1714. Joseph Henry invented the electric telegraph in 1831. Alexander Graham Bell the telephone in 1876. Photographs and movies were developed in 1877. In 1888, George Eastman patented the Kodak roll film camera. By 1930, radio and then television became popular home entertainments (Rowland, 1997). Computers were sold commercially by 1951. The first internet, APRANET (1969) had cable services in 1972 (Slevin, 2000. Rowland, 1997). In 1979, mobile phones emerged, with PC and laptop services by 1981. Cellular phones went worldwide by 1985 and the World Wide Web changed the face of global communication in 1994 (Rowland, 1997). From a philosophical perspective, Francis Bacon considered science and technology a means to understand and master nature. René Descartes argued for a world controlled by mathematical principles (in Ferre and Allan, 1994). Technological advancement is necessary for the advancement of civilization and to overcome the limitations of nature (Mitcham, 1994). Downey (2002) suggests historians of telegraphy focus on system builders and geographers traced changes brought to the speed of business. Both have ignored the history of the human element of the telegraph network (Downey, 2002), which should form an element of study, blending the human geographical element and history of technology to understand urban experiences of technological changes.