Public Sector Concerns

User charges, user fees and licenses are taxes by another name. Do you agree with this statement? Discuss thoroughly, giving reasons for your answer.
The debate on categorizing user fees, user charges, and licence charges as taxes has been well established within the society, moving to the court level in some states for clarification. It is important to note that as much as both the taxes and these user charges and fees contribute towards the government revenue, there is a significant difference between them. One of the most significant differences between the user charges and taxes is that the user charges are paid primarily for the sake of regulating the welfare of the target population or in other cases. they are charged a fee for services of the same value, offered by the government [Mik13]. Contrary to this, the taxes are mainly aimed at raising the government revenue and do not involve a direct reciprocating service in respect to the value of the amount paid. Another important point to note is that user charges are mainly required of the particular individuals that a government service is directed to, or towards off-setting an incurred regulatory burden. This is unlike tax that is uniformly applied to the district in which it implemented. Lastly, the funds gained from the user charges are directed towards catering for the cost of regulation or the cost of service providence for the involved fee payer. On the other hand, funds gained from general taxes are directed towards the benefit of the public [Mik13].
What is Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)? What does it require of employers?
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) is a law developed by the Federal government of the United States to govern safety and occupational health both in the Federal government and the private sector within the U.S. The aim of the Congress in passing the law was to ensure that all individuals within the nation are exposed to healthy and safe working conditions [Kli09]. The OSHA requires all the employers both in the public and private sectors to ensure that employees are provided with working environments that are free from any recognized hazards such as excessive levels of noise, toxic chemicals, cold or heat stress, mechanical hazards, or unsanitary conditions. OSHA forms a division under the Department of Labour in the U.S., which develops and enforces standards, and oversees implementation of the Act in the states within the U.S. [Kli09].
What can employers do to reduce or respond to workplace violence?
The best way through which employers can deal with workplace violence is by establishing mechanisms through which such incidences of violence can be prevented. One of the measures that should be upheld towards managing violence at the workplace is proper screening of employees before they are employed [Kli09]. Through checking of the references and proper inquiry of prior violence incidents, the employer can reduce employment of personnel who are prone to instigating violence. It is also important for the employer to take advantage of the resources within the community in mitigating chances of workplace violence. This could include inviting security and law enforcement experts to the organization to educate the employees on the importance and ways of avoiding workplace violence. Proper institution and timely review of security procedures are important in reducing workplace violence through increasing quick response to threatening situations. Other measures that could be taken by the employer include: establishment of proper rules that govern employee behaviour. improving internal employee communication and reporting mechanisms. training the managers and employees in handling situations that could lead to violence. establishment prevention programs such as the employee assistance program (EAP). and development of a threat management plan [Kli09].
Mik13: , (Mikesell, 2013),
Kli09: , (Klingner, Nalbandian, amp. Llorens, 2009),