.. (Twenge and Campbell 4). The question may then be asked: how did the development of the cultural focus on self admiration led to narcissism? Are there any cures or solutions to this cultural phenomenon? In order to answer this question, the researcher would try to focus on the development of narcisissm, especially on Chapter 4 of Twenge and Campbell’s book The Narcissism Epidemic: Living in the Age of Entitlement entitled How Did We Get Here? Origins of the Epidemic. In addition, the researcher would also try to evaluate whether there is any possible cure or solution to this epidemic, based on an analysis of the text, and as well as incorporating relevant sociological theories to analyze the epidemic of narcissism in American society. The Development of Narcissism in American Society As stated earlier in the paper, Twenge and Campbell actually argue that narcissism may have started in the crucial decade of the 1970’s, just when the cultural focus on self admiration began to arise (Twenge and Campbell 4). … (Twenge and Campbell 56) Especially as portrayed in the mass media, such excess was actually favores, and even longed for, by many American consumers, given that having such excesses was not only seen as an expression of oneself, but also of making one have a higher sense of self-esteem and be appreciated more by society at thye same time. Therefore, as one indulges himself/herself in exceses, he/she actually thinks that he/she will be appreciated more especially by regular acquaintances in society, and will also make them have a higher confidence and self-esteem. However, Twenge and Campbell was also ready to argue that the culture of narcissism was not originally a core American idea, given that the American constitution actually provided for the ensurance of individual freedom tempered with equality (Twenge and Campbell 57), and that the core American value of indivualism was actually viewed that indivualsim must be grounded not woth self admiration, but with self reliance (Twenge and Campbell 58). In this case, Twenge and Campbell argue that three social trends seem to be the main cause for the rise of narcissism: the movement toward self-esteem, the goal of self-exploration, and the culture of moving away from community-oriented thinking (Twenge and Campbell 62-64). In addition, Twenge and Campbell also argues that Americans abandoned the vision of themsleves as a part of an interconnected social system—a connection of parents to children and grandchildren and of community to community—and instead turned to the narcissistic pursuit of the self as a source of value, almost like a religious experience.