Individual Actualization in Complex Organizations

Abraham Maslow (1954) described this in a hierarchical manner starting with human psychology, safety and security, belongingness, self-esteem and finally self-actualization. According to Maslow employees have a basic human need and a right to strive for self-actualization, just as much as the corporate directors and owners do and by this fulfillment, the organization becomes stronger, competitive and profitable.The negative or Positive attitude of the management is explained by Douglas McGregor (1960) in his theory X and theory Y. According to him a negative attitude of the management, theory X, presupposes that workers are lazy, passive, without ambition, willing to be led and resist change. Hence management is through control, coercion, threats, and punishment. This results in low productivity, antagonism, unionism and subtle sabotage. In contrast, positive management, theory Y, believes that people are motivated, active and interested, ambitious, prefer to lead and are interested in change. Hence management is through open systems, communications, self-managing teams and peer controlled pay systems. The result is high productivity, bonhomie, and care for the organization. According to Nelson and Winter (1982) routine interactions within the working environment forms the basis of organizational culture and a predictive pattern emerges. Deal and Kennedy (1982) describe it as the way we do things here. The importance of this routine is gaining importance as has been acknowledged by Cohen et al (1972) and Hedberg et al (1976). Ritual activities form another view of practices as shown by Trice and Beyer (1984, 1985). The culture of the organization has been defined by Edgar Schein (1985) and acknowledged at three levels of cultural phenomena: basic assumptions, values, and artifacts. Basic assumptions are the conditions taken for granted in an organization and considered to be the correct way of doing things.