Impact of Urbanization on Ecology

Urbanization means an increased scale of settlement and business in the area over time. This process can be either natural expansion of the existing population, or the transformation of the population from rural to urban areas, or a combination of these two processes.Besides this, urbanization strongly has effects on the ecology of a region and its economy. With the increase of the activities in the urban area of large cities the volume of waste which accompanies increased affluence and reliance on purchased goods also increases. Moreover, harmful synthetic materials used in packing, household appliances or machinery threatens neighboring rural areas and water sources. [Batten, 1995]Environmental effects due to urbanization have been observed since early in the 18th century, while until the middle of the 20th century the levels of urbanization were too low and the number of cities was too small. But since 1950 the number of large cities has increased rapidly, provoking large metropolitan areas and agglomerations appear. The effects of urban development on ecology can be defined by many factors, the most important of which are air quality, the availability of safe water supplies, provisions of sanitation and waste management.Urbanization often provides people with contact with wildlife. For example, hunting deer is forbidden in settled areas, and it became tame. puma as a natural predator of deer and pets such as cats and dogs, which becomes at home in the urban setting and thus often addresses people as a source of food. [Fisher, 1976]In urban areas, the majority of economic activity often occurs outwards from the city core, so that people need to go greater distances to offices and markets, situated in the core. Most of them use cars, which pollute the air with emissions and waters with auto fluids, rubber, metal and grime, and road salts.