Condition monitoring Fault diagnosis

Chapter 10 Fault Diagnosis of reciprocating compressors using relevance Vector Machines with a Genetic Algorithm based on vibration data Literature Review of RVM and GA-RVM for Fault Classification
Relevance vector machines (RVM) have been used in tandem with genetic algorithms (GA) in order to classify faults in non linear systems. The relative accuracy of RVM systems supported by GAs provide better classification rates for small learning data sets than for other comparable artificial intelligence fault classification methods.
RVM has been utilised along with GA in order to to optimally control nonlinear manufacturing processes. The technique relies on discerning approximately optimal control parameters of the manufacturing device. In turn, the nonlinear behavior of the manufacturing device has regression performed to filter out noise through the utilization of a kernel based Bayesian structure. The GA tabulates the near optimal control parameters in order to maximize the required objective (Yuan et al., 2007).
Rotating machinery fault diagnosis has been attempted using thermal imaging processed through RVM methods in combination with bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) and generalized discriminant analysis (GDA). The BEMD enhanced thermal image is treated with GDA to reduce features after which RVM is implemented for fault classification (Tran et al., 2013).
RVM has been compared to support vector machine (SVM) methods to demonstrate its robustness for gear fault detection. Compared to SVM, the RVM method required lesser kernel functions and learning time while demonstrating comparable performance (He et al., 2009).
RVM combined with GA has been utilized in state classification of roll bearings. The GA is applied to determine training parameters for RVM. Experimentation and analysis revealed that the application of GA in combination with RVM produced better results than back propagation neural networks and SVM (Li amp. Liu, 2010).
A comparison of multi class RVM and SVM methods for low speed bearing fault detection revealed that RVM methods held great promise for accurate fault classification. Component analysis was carried out in order to classify features and to reduce the dimensions of the raw data set. Fault diagnosis was carried out with feature extraction and without it (Widodo et al., 2009).
Wavelet packet feature extraction was applied in tandem with RVM for detecting gear faults. Using the Fisher criterion, the discrimination power of the features is tabulated and two optimal features are selected in the time domain and wavelet domain. These are used as inputs to the RVM. Comparisons with SVM revealed that the RVM based method produced better results for online classification (Li et al., 2011).
RVM methods have been used on multi class discrimination problems in order to examine sparsity and recognition problems. RVM was used in tandem with multi class and multi kernel methods to test a number of different real world data sets. Results obtained from these methods were compared to results obtained from existing classification techniques. The application of multi kernel RVM methods demonstrated accuracy in producing multi class discrimination problems (Psorakis et al., 2010).
RVM methods were applied to analog circuits for the diagnosis of faults modeled as multi class machine learning problems. Investigation was carried out on a first order Op-amp reluctance capacitance (RC) circuit in order to demonstrate the capabilities of RVM methods in resolving such problems. Results indicated that these methods could be utilized in order to diagnose faults in more intricate analog circuits that involve a greater number of components (Jain et al., 2011).
He, C. et al., 2009. Relevance vector machine based gear fault detection. In CCPR, ed. Chinese Conference on Pattern Recognition. Nanjing, 2009.
Jain, V., Pillai, G.N. amp. Gupta, I., 2011. Fault diagnosis in analog circuits using multiclass relevance vector machines. In Proceedings of ICETECT., 2011.
Li, Y. amp. Liu, T., 2010. Study on classification model based on relevance vector machine with genetic algorithm. In ICIFE, ed. 2nd IEEE International Conference on Information and Financial Engineering. Chongqing, 2010.
Li, N. et al., 2011. Gear fault detection based on adaptive wavelet packet feature extraction and relevance vector machine. In SAGE, ed. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C, Journal of Mechnical Engineering Science., 2011. Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
Psorakis, I., Damoulas, T. amp. Girolami, M.A., 2010. Multiclass relevance vector machines: sparsity and accuracy. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 21(10), pp.1588-98.
Tran, V.T., Yang, B.-S., Gu, F. amp. Ball, A., 2013. Thermal image enhancement using bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition in combination with relevance vector machine for rotating machinery fault diagnosis. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 38(2), pp.601-14.
Widodo, A. et al., 2009. Fault diagnosis of low speed bearing based on relevance vector machine and support vector machine. Expert Systems with Applications, 36, pp.7252-61.
Yuan, J., Wang, K., Yu, T. amp. Fang, M., 2007. Integrating relevance vector machines and genetic algorithms for optimisation of seed-separating process. Engineering Application of Artificial Intelligence, 20, pp.970-79.