Chapter17

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge)Chapter 17
Organizational Change and Stress Management1) Each of the following is most likely to result in the changing nature of the workforce except ________.A) immigrationB) outsourcingC) multicultural environmentD) demographic changesE) changing literacy levelsAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) The nature of the workforce is most likely to change due to a multicultural environment, demographic changes, immigration, and outsourcing.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.1 Contrast the forces for change and planned change.2) Proactive situations call for which type of change?A) plannedB) reactionaryC) scriptedD) both A and BE) both A and CAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Planned decisions are only available when the change is planned in advance. If a change is needed in reaction to a demand, then it is a reactionary change.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.1 Contrast the forces for change and planned change.3) Organizations are increasingly adjusting their processes and positioning their products as environment friendly and sustainable in order to increase their appeal to consumers. This is a response to changes in ________.A) demographic trendsB) social trendsC) cultural trendsD) economic shocksE) nature of the workforceAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Social trends don’t remain static. Consumers now meet and share information in chat rooms and blogs. Companies must continually adjust product and marketing strategies to be sensitive to changing social trends. Consumers, employees, and organizational leaders are more sensitive to environmental concerns. “Green” practices are quickly becoming expected rather than optional.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.1 Contrast the forces for change and planned change.4) Consumers now meet and share information in chat rooms and blogs. This is an example of changes in the ________.A) competitionB) nature of the workforceC) social trendsD) world politicsE) economyAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Consumers meeting and sharing information in chat rooms and blogs is an example of changing social trends.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.1 Contrast the forces for change and planned change.5) Inability to change in accordance with the market trends can cause organizations to go bankrupt.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  No company today is in a particularly stable environment. Even those with dominant market share must change, sometimes radically. Thus, “Change or die!” is the rallying cry among today’s managers worldwide. Almost every organization must adjust to a multicultural environment, demographic changes, immigration, and outsourcing.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.1 Contrast the forces for change and planned change.6) Rapid innovation and technological developments have forced companies to broaden their view of competition.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Competition is changing. Competitors are as likely to come from across the ocean as from across town. Successful organizations will be fast on their feet, capable of developing new products rapidly and getting them to market quickly.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.1 Contrast the forces for change and planned change.7) What are the various forces that make it necessary for the organizations to change?Answer:  The six specific forces for change are: the nature of the workforce, technology, economic shocks, competition, social trends, and world politics.a) The nature of the workforce includes multicultural environment, demographic changes, immigration, and outsourcing.b) Technology is continually changing jobs and organizations.c) Financial sectors recently have experienced extraordinary economic shocks, leading to the elimination, bankruptcy, or acquisition of several companies.d) Competition is changing. Competitors are as likely to come from across the ocean as from across town. Successful organizations will be fast on their feet, capable of developing new products rapidly and getting them to market quickly.e) Social trends don’t remain static. Consumers now meet and share information in chat rooms and blogs. Companies must continually adjust product and marketing strategies to be sensitive to changing social trends.f) World politics is changing. The opening of China and Southeast Asia, and the rise of Muslim fundamentalism are examples of changing world politics.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.1 Contrast the forces for change and planned change.8) It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is ________.A) covertB) deferredC) passiveD) implicitE) overtAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Resistance doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. It can be overt, implicit, immediate, or deferred. It’s easiest for management to deal with overt and immediate resistance, such as complaints, a work slowdown, or a strike threat. The greater challenge is managing resistance that is implicit or deferred.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.9) A(n) ________ resistance to change clouds the link between the change and the reaction to it and may surface weeks, months, or even years later.A) overtB) immediateC) activeD) explicitE) deferredAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) A deferred resistance to change clouds the link between the change and the reaction to it and may surface weeks, months, or even years later.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.10) Which of the following resistance to change is implicit?A) strikeB) increased errorC) resignationD) complaintE) work slowdownAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Resistance to change that is implicit or deferred is difficult to manage. Examples of such responses are loss of loyalty or motivation and increased errors or absenteeism.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.11) Which of the following resistances to change is overt and immediate?A) loss of loyaltyB) increased absenteeismC) loss of motivationD) increased errorE) complaintAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Complaint is an overt and immediate response to change.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.12) Which of the following is an example of a source of individual resistance?A) limited focus of changeB) product orientationC) fear of the unknownD) structural inertiaE) employee orientationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Individual sources of resistance to change are habit, security, economic factors, fear of the unknown, and selective information processing.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.13) Which of the following is an example of an individual source of resistance to change?A) structural inertiaB) selective information processingC) limited focus of changeD) threat to established power relationshipsE) group inertiaAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Individual sources of resistance to change are habit, security, economic factors, fear of the unknown, and selective information processing.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.14) Which of the following reactions from employees is preferable as a response to change?A) silenceB) apathyC) resignationD) open discussionE) increase in the use of sick timeAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Employees who have negative feelings about a change cope by not thinking about it, increasing their use of sick time, and quitting. All these reactions can sap the organization of vital energy when it is most needed. Resistance to change can be positive if it leads to open discussion and debate. These responses are usually preferable to apathy or silence and can indicate that members of the organization are engaged in the process, providing change agents an opportunity to explain the change effort.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.15) Selective information processing is a major force for resistance to change. It indicates that ________.A) changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups so these groups tend to resist changeB) individuals hear what they want to hear and they ignore information that challenges the world they’ve createdC) limited changes in subsystems tend to be nullified by the larger systemD) groups in the organization that control sizable resources often resist changeE) even if individuals want to change their behavior, group norms may act as a constraintAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact. They hear what they want to hear and they ignore information that challenges the world they’ve created.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.16) After restructuring, your division has had trouble filling the open positions with appropriate candidates. The selection processes used by human resources have not yet adjusted to the new criteria required for the restructured job positions. This problem is an example of which kind of resistance to change?A) structural inertiaB) limited focus of changeC) group inertiaD) threat to expertiseE) threat to established power relationshipsAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) This is an example of structural inertia. Organizations have built-in mechanisms, such as their selection processes and formalized regulations, to produce stability. When an organization is confronted with change, this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.17) Which one of the following is not listed as a tactic for dealing with resistance to change?A) accelerationB) manipulationC) participationD) cooptationE) communicationAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Seven tactics can help change agents deal with resistance to change: education and communication, participation, building support and commitment, developing positive relationships, implementing changes fairly, manipulation and cooptation, selecting people who accept change, and coercion.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.18) Which of the following is an example of an organizational source of resistance to change?A) limited focus of changeB) securityC) fear of the unknownD) selective information processingE) economic factorsAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Organizational sources of resistance to change include structural inertia, limited focus of change, group inertia, threat to expertise, threat to established power relationships, and threat to established resource allocations.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.19) Using covert influence to overcome resistance to change is called ________.A) negotiationB) cooptationC) communicationD) coercionE) manipulationAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Manipulation refers to covert influence attempts. Twisting facts to make them more attractive, withholding information, and creating false rumors to get employees to accept change are all examples of manipulation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.20) Limited focus of change is a major force for resistance to change that originates from an organizational source. It indicates that ________.A) groups in the organization that control sizable resources often resist changeB) changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups so these groups tend to resist changeC) organizations have structural inertia that acts as a counterbalance to sustain stabilityD) limited changes in subsystems tend to be nullified by the larger systemE) even if individuals want to change their behavior, group norms may act as a constraintAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems. One can’t be changed without affecting the others. So limited changes in subsystems tend to be nullified by the larger system. This force of resistance to change is known as limited focus of change.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.21) If individuals resisting change are included in making change decisions in an attempt to gain their support, this approach is called ________.A) cooptationB) exploitationC) manipulationD) coercionE) communicationAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Cooptation, on the other hand, combines manipulation and participation. It seeks to “buy off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role, seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.22) Which tactic to overcome resistance to change is a relatively inexpensive way to gain the support of adversaries, but may backfire if the targets become aware of the tactic?A) negotiationB) conciliationC) manipulationD) coercionE) arbitrationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Both manipulation and cooptation are relatively inexpensive ways to gain the support of adversaries, but they can backfire if the targets become aware they are being tricked or used. Once that’s discovered, the change agent’s credibility may drop to zero.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.23) “Buying off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role and seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement is an example of ________.A) coercionB) cooptationC) procedural fairnessD) distributive bargainingE) operant conditioningAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Cooptation combines manipulation and participation. “Buying off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role and seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement is an example of cooptation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.24) Procedural fairness while implementing changes is especially important when ________.A) the organization is facing intense competitionB) the employees have participated in the decision making processC) employees perceive the outcome as negativeD) the environment in which the business operates is dynamicE) the employees are resisting the change due to group inertiaAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) One way organizations can minimize negative impact is to make sure change is implemented fairly. Procedural fairness is especially important when employees perceive an outcome as negative, so it’s crucial that employees see the reason for the change and perceive its implementation as consistent and fair.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.25) The management of a firm threatens to close a manufacturing plant whose employees are resisting an across-the-board pay cut. If the threat is untrue, the management is using ________.A) coercionB) cooptationC) communicationD) manipulationE) procedural fairnessAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Manipulation refers to covert influence attempts. Twisting facts to make them more attractive, withholding information, and creating false rumors to get employees to accept change are all examples of manipulation. If management threatens to close a manufacturing plant whose employees are resisting an across-the-board pay cut, and if the threat is untrue, management is using manipulation.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.26) The application of direct threats or force upon resisters is called ________.A) negotiationB) cooptationC) manipulationD) coercionE) arbitrationAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Coercion is the application of direct threats or force on the resisters. If management really is determined to close a manufacturing plant whose employees don’t acquiesce to a pay cut, the company is using coercion.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.27) Your company, Johnson Farm Products, has decided to expand its traditional business serving farm owners in order to include home gardeners in its customer base. This change is not met with enthusiasm by the sales personnel who have had good long-term relationships with area farmers. You know that the change will be difficult if you cannot overcome the resistance of the sales personnel and obtain their cooperation. You have brought in the local extension agent to explain demographics and the changing nature of the area in which you live. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen is ________.A) communicationB) participationC) negotiationD) manipulation and cooptationE) coercionAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) In this example, the method chosen for overcoming resistance is education and communication. Communicating the logic of a change can reduce employee resistance on two levels. First, it fights the effects of misinformation and poor communication: If employees receive the full facts and clear up misunderstandings, resistance should subside. Second, communication can help “sell” the need for change by packaging it properly.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.28) You have decided to involve the sales personnel in planning for the change and in stocking appropriate new items to sell to gardeners. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen is ________.A) communicationB) participationC) negotiationD) manipulation and cooptationE) coercionAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) In this example, the method chosen for overcoming resistance is participation. It’s difficult to resist a change decision in which we’ve participated. Assuming participants have the expertise to make a meaningful contribution, their involvement can reduce resistance, obtain commitment, and increase the quality of the change decision.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.29) You have threatened to eliminate positions and even to close down the company if your employees don’t change their attitudes. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen is ________.A) communicationB) participationC) negotiationD) coercionE) cooptationAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) In this example, the method chosen for overcoming resistance is coercion. Coercion is the application of direct threats or force on the resisters. If management really is determined to close a manufacturing plant whose employees don’t acquiesce to a pay cut, the company is using coercion. Other examples are threats of transfer, loss of promotions, negative performance evaluations, and a poor letter of recommendation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.30) Which of the following tactics for overcoming resistance to change is most likely to be beneficial when employees’ fear and anxiety are high?A) educationB) building support and commitment C) participationD) implementing changes fairlyE) coercionAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) When employees’ fear and anxiety are high, counseling and therapy, new-skills training, or a short paid leave of absence may facilitate adjustment. These are the various ways of building support and commitment.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.31) Higher-level managers will resist changes proposed by subordinates, especially if these leaders are focused on ________ performance.A) immediateB) long-termC) goal statementD) proactiveE) individualAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) When the manager is focused on immediate job performance, they most often will be too concerned with keeping on their own track rather than listening to the ideas of the subordinates.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.32) Research has shown that formal information sessions ________ employees’ anxiety about the change, while providing high-quality information about the change ________ their commitment to it.A) nullify; exemplifyB) exemplify; decreaseC) increase; decreaseD) decrease; increaseE) increase; nullifyAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Open channels of communication work to allow the flow of communication to be equitable across the organization, which works to reduce anxietyDiff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.33) When an employee’s fear and anxiety are high, which of the following are appropriate actions to help the employee adjust?A) new-skills trainingB) short paid leave of absenceC) counselingD) therapyE) job reassignmentAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Job reassignment would serve to only further the fear and anxiety.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.34) Coercion can be a highly effective agent of change.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Coercion is most effective when some force or pressure is enacted on at least some resisters.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.35) People are more willing to accept changes if they trust the managers implementing them.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  People are more willing to accept changes if they trust the managers implementing them.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.36) Cooptation is a form of both manipulation and participation.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Cooptation combines manipulation and participation. It seeks to “buy off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role, seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.37) What are the various ways in which employees express resistance to change?Answer:  One of the most well-documented findings from studies of individual and organizational behavior is that organizations and their members resist change. Employees who have negative feelings about a change cope by not thinking about it, increasing their use of sick time, and quitting. All these reactions can sap the organization of vital energy when it is most needed. Resistance doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. It can be overt, implicit, immediate, or deferred. It’s easiest for management to deal with overt and immediate resistance, such as complaints, a work slowdown, or a strike threat. The greater challenge is managing resistance that is implicit or deferred. These responses—loss of loyalty or motivation, increased errors or absenteeism—are more subtle and more difficult to recognize for what they are. Deferred actions also cloud the link between the change and the reaction to it and may surface weeks, months, or even years later.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.38) Identify and define the various individual sources of resistance to change.Answer:  The various individual sources of resistance to change are:a) Habit: To cope with life’s complexities, we rely on habits or programmed responses. But when confronted with change, this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance.b) Security: People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens feelings of safety.c) Economic factors: Changes in job tasks or established work routines can arouse economic fears if people are concerned that they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards, especially when pay is closely tied to productivity.d) Fear of the unknown: Change substitutes ambiguity and uncertainty for the unknown.e) Selective information processing: Individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact. They hear what they want to hear and they ignore information that challenges the world they’ve created.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.39) What is cooptation?Answer:  Cooptation is a technique of overcoming resistance to change. Cooptation combines manipulation and participation. It seeks to “buy off” the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role, seeking their advice not to find a better solution but to get their endorsement. Cooptation is a relatively inexpensive way to gain the support of adversaries, but it can backfire if the targets become aware they are being tricked or used.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.40) What are the various organizational sources of resistance to change?Answer:  The various organizational sources of resistance to change are:a) Structural inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms—like their selection processes and formalized regulations—to produce stability. When an organization is confronted with change, this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability.b) Limited focus of change: Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems. One can’t be changed without affecting the others. So limited changes in subsystems tend to be nullified by the larger system.c) Group inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior, group norms may act as a constraint.d) Threat to expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups.e) Threat to established power relationships: Any redistribution of decision—making authority can threaten long—established power relationships within the organization.f) Threat to established resource allocations: Groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. They tend to be content with the way things are.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.41) Why would a board of directors which recognizes a need for a rapid or radical change turn to bringing in new leadership?Answer:  Radical change is often viewed as very threatening to the organization and will face tremendous backlash. Political forces within the organization might also make it impossible for the current leadership to enact the change, thus requiring new leadership.Diff: 3AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.42) What are the various individual sources of resistance to change?Answer:  The various individual sources of resistance to change are:a) Habit: To cope with life’s complexities, we rely on habits or programmed responses. But when confronted with change, this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance.b) Security: People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens feelings of safety.c) Economic factors: Changes in job tasks or established work routines can arouse economic fears if people are concerned that they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards, especially when pay is closely tied to productivity.d) Fear of the unknown: Change substitutes ambiguity and uncertainty for the unknown.e) Selective information processing: Individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact. They hear what they want to hear and they ignore information that challenges the world they’ve created.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.2 Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.43) Who developed a three-step model for change that included unfreezing, movement, and refreezing?A) John KotterB) David McClellandC) Douglas SurberD) Lawrence SummersE) Kurt LewinAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Kurt Lewin argued that successful change in organizations should follow three steps: unfreezing the status quo, movement to a desired end state, and refreezing the new change to make it permanent.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.44) Who built on Lewin’s three-step model to create a more detailed approach for implementing change?A) John KotterB) David McClellandC) Douglas SurberD) Lawrence SummersE) Henry MintzbergAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) John Kotter built on Lewin’s three-step model to create a more detailed approach for implementing change. Kotter began by listing common mistakes managers make when trying to initiate change. Kotter then established eight sequential steps to overcome these problems.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.45) Which of the following is the first step in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change?A) Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.B) Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed.C) Plan for, create, and reward short-term “wins” that move the organization toward the new vision.D) Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change.E) Communicate the vision throughout the organization.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) The first step in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change is establishing a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.46) Which of the following is the last step in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change?A) Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change.B) Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed.C) Communicate the vision throughout the organization.D) Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.E) Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) The last step in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change is reinforcing the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.47) ________ is a collection of change methods that seek to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.A) Organizational developmentB) Appreciative inquiryC) GroupthinkD) Action researchE) Economic validityAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Organizational development (OD) is a collection of change methods that try to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being. OD methods value human and organizational growth, collaborative and participative processes, and a spirit of inquiry.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.48) Which of the following is an organizational development technique that involves an outsider assisting a manager to identify what to improve and how?A) action researchB) intergroup developmentC) appreciative inquiryD) process consultationE) social reinforcementAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Managers often sense their unit’s performance can be improved but are unable to identify what to improve and how. The purpose of process consultation (PC) is for an outside consultant to assist a client, usually a manager, “to perceive, understand, and act upon process events” with which the manager must deal.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.49) Rather than looking for problems, ________ seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built upon to improve performance.A) appreciative inquiryB) action researchC) team buildingD) process consultationE) social reinforcementAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Most organizational development approaches are problem centered. They identify a problem or set of problems, then look for a solution. Appreciative inquiry (AI) instead accentuates the positive. Rather than looking for problems to fix, it seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which members can build on to improve performance. That is, AI focuses on an organization’s successes rather than its problems.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.50) How does process consultation help in organizational development?A) It leads the group to commit to various remedies for the problems identified.B) It assists the client in perceiving, understanding, and acting upon process events.C) It identifies individuals who are willing to accept changes.D) It focuses on an organization’s success rather than its problems.E) It helps form a coalition with enough power to lead the change.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) The purpose of process consultation is for an outside consultant to assist a client, usually a manager, “to perceive, understand, and act upon process events” with which the manager must deal.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.51) John Kotter built on Lewin’s three-step model to create a more detailed approach for implementing change. Which of the following steps in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change represents the “unfreezing” stage in the Lewin’s three-step model?A) Plan for, create, and reward short-term “wins” that move the organization toward the new vision.B) Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs.C) Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.D) Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving.E) Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) The first four steps in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change represent the “unfreezing” stage in the Lewin’s three-step model. One of these four steps is, create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.52) Team building typically includes ________.A) team process analysisB) confrontationC) intergroup relationsD) power equalizationE) manipulationAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Team building typically includes goal-setting, development of interpersonal relations among team members, role analysis to clarify each member’s role and responsibilities, and team process analysis.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.53) Which of the following OD techniques involves changing groups’ attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions about each other?A) survey feedbackB) process consultationC) team buildingD) intergroup developmentE) appreciative inquiryAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) A major area of concern in OD is dysfunctional conflict among groups. Intergroup development seeks to change groups’ attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions about each other.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.54) Which of the following steps in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change represents the “refreezing” stage in the Lewin’s three-step model?A) Plan for, create, and reward short-term “wins” that move the organization toward the new vision.B) Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs.C) Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.D) Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving.E) Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Reinforcing the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success is the last step in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change and it represents the “refreezing” stage in the Lewin’s three-step model.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.55) Which of the following is a step in the appreciative inquiry process?A) analysisB) dreamingC) inferringD) classifyingE) collaborationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The appreciative inquiry process consists of four steps: discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny. These steps are often played out in a large-group meeting over a 2- or 3-day time period and overseen by a trained change agent.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.56) Appreciative inquiry (AI) is an organizational development technique. Which of the following statements is true regarding appreciative inquiry?A) It tries to identify discrepancies among member perceptions and solve these differences.B) It uses high-interaction group activities to increase trust and openness among team members, improve coordinative efforts, and increase team performance.C) It involves an outside consultant who helps the manager to analyze processes within his or her unit and identify what to improve and how.D) It consists of four steps including discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny.E) It seeks to change groups’ attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions about each other.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) AI focuses on an organization’s successes rather than its problems. The AI process consists of four steps—discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny—often played out in a large-group meeting over a 2- or 3-day time period and overseen by a trained change agent.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.57) Which of the following steps of the appreciative inquiry attempts to identify what people think are the organization’s strengths?A) dreamingB) destinyC) collaborationD) inferringE) discoveryAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) The appreciative inquiry process consists of four steps—discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny—often played out in a large-group meeting over a 2- or 3-day time period and overseen by a trained change agent. Discovery sets out to identify what people think are the organization’s strengths.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.58) During the “dreaming” step of appreciative inquiry, participants ________.A) identify the organization’s strengthsB) use information from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futuresC) find a common vision of how the organization will look in the futureD) write action plans and develop implementation strategiesE) recount times they felt the organization worked bestAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) During the “dreaming” step of appreciative inquiry, employees use information from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futures, such as what the organization will be like in 5 years.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.59) During the “design” step of appreciative inquiry, participants ________.A) find a common vision of how the organization will look in the futureB) use information from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futuresC) identify the organization’s strengthsD) recount times they felt the organization worked bestE) write action plans and develop implementation strategiesAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) During the “design” step of appreciative inquiry, participants find a common vision of how the organization will look in the future and agree on its unique qualities.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.60) Which of the following is not one of the four approaches to managing organizational change?A) Lewin’s three-step modelB) Kotter’s eight-step planC) Taylor’s classic theoryD) action researchE) organizational developmentAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Taylor’s theory has nothing to do with the change process.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.61) What is the correct order within the action research process?A) analysis, feedback, action, evaluation, and diagnosisB) feedback, action, evaluation, diagnosis, and analysisC) action, evaluation, diagnosis, analysis, and feedbackD) diagnosis, analysis, feedback, action, and evaluationE) evaluation, diagnosis, analysis, feedback, and actionAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Action research consists of five steps (note how they closely parallel the scientific method): diagnosis, analysis, feedback, action, and evaluation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.62) Companies with strong cultures excel at implementing radical change.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Research shows that companies with strong cultures excel at incremental change but are overcome by restraining forces against radical change.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.63) Research on organizational change has shown that, to be effective, change should take place as slowly as possible.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Research on organizational change has shown that, to be effective, change has to happen quickly. Organizations that build up to change do less well than those that get to and through the movement stage quickly.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.64) During the “discovery” step of appreciative inquiry, participants write action plans and develop implementation strategies.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  The appreciative inquiry process consists of four steps—discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny. The “discovery” step of appreciative inquiry attempts to identify what people think are the organization’s strengths.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.65) Please list and discuss the two main benefits of action research.Answer:  Action research provides at least two specific benefits. First, it’s problem-focused. The change agent objectively looks for problems, and the type of problem determines the type of change action. A second benefit of action research is the lowering of resistance. Because action research engages employees so thoroughly in the process, it reduces resistance to change. Once employees have actively participated in the feedback stage, the change process typically takes on a momentum of its own.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.66) Describe the Lewin’s three-step model used for managing change.Answer:  Kurt Lewin argued that successful change in organizations should follow three steps: unfreezing the status quo, movement to a desired end state, and refreezing the new change to make it permanent. Before implementing a change, organizations tend to be in an equilibrium state. To move from equilibrium—to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity—unfreezing must happen in one of three ways. The driving forces, which direct behavior away from the status quo, can be increased. The restraining forces, which hinder movement away from equilibrium, can be decreased. A third alternative is to combine the first two approaches. Research on organizational change has shown that, to be effective, change has to happen quickly. Organizations that build up to change do less well than those that get to and through the movement stage quickly. Once change has been implemented, to be successful, the new situation must be refrozen so it can be sustained over time. Without this last step, change will likely be short-lived and employees will attempt to revert to the previous equilibrium state.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.67) List the eight steps in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change.Answer:  The eight steps in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change are:1. Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed.2. Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change.3. Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision.4. Communicate the vision throughout the organization.5. Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving.6. Plan for, create, and reward short-term “wins” that move the organization toward the new vision.7. Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs.8. Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.3 Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.68) Idea champions display characteristics associated with ________ leadership.A) narcissisticB) transformationalC) autocraticD) transactionalE) laissez-faireAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Idea champions display characteristics associated with transformational leadership—they inspire and energize others with their vision of an innovation’s potential and their strong personal conviction about their mission.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.69) Which of the following actions can extinguish risk taking and innovation?A) long tenure in managementB) encouraging experimentationC) rewarding for the absence of failures rather than for the presence of successesD) using organic organizational structuresE) using an organizational structure that scores low on vertical differentiation, formalization, and centralizationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Innovative organizations encourage experimentation. Organic structures positively influence innovation because they’re lower in vertical differentiation, formalization, and centralization. The long tenure in management is associated with innovation. Innovative organization rewards both successes and failures. They celebrate mistakes. Unfortunately, in too many organizations, people are rewarded for the absence of failures rather than for the presence of successes. Such cultures extinguish risk taking and innovation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.70) Which of the following is not a reason why organic structures promote innovation?A) high formalizationB) low vertical differentiationC) high flexibilityD) low centralizationE) cross-fertilizationAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Organic structures positively influence innovation because they’re lower in vertical differentiation, formalization, and centralization, therefore facilitating the flexibility, adaptation, and cross-fertilization that make the adoption of innovations easier.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.71) Alex has a new idea for a way to cut costs in his department, but he is not willing to share his idea with his boss because the last department head that tried new cost cutting methods was recently fired because the new methods could not achieve expected results. Based on the example, how can Alex’s company improve the culture to create innovation?A) flatten the organizational structureB) reward both successes and failuresC) increase the resources in Alex’s departmentD) encourage communication between various departmentsE) conduct team building activitiesAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Innovative organizations tend to have similar cultures. They encourage experimentation. People will suggest and try new ideas only when they feel such behaviors exact no penalties. Managers in innovative organizations recognize that failures are a natural by-product of venturing into the unknown.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.72) Darg’s team just had a research breakthrough. They’ll need several thousands of dollars to complete the project. Darg has called a series of meetings in which he’s promoting the significance of the new discovery, explaining the economic benefits that will result from the final project, and answering questions. Darg is a(n) ________ within his company.A) change agentB) arbitratorC) manipulatorD) idea championE) stress creatorAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Darg is an idea champion. Idea champions are individuals who take an innovation and actively and enthusiastically promote the idea, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that the idea is implemented.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.73) Which of the following statements is true regarding effects of culture on change effects?A) People in high power distance cultures prefer champions to work closely with those in authority to approve innovative activities before work is begun.B) In cultures in which people believe that they can dominate their environment, individuals will tend to take a passive approach toward change.C) As compared to people from the United States, people from China are more likely to seek change programs that promise fast results.D) People in the United States are more resistant to change efforts than their Italian counterparts.E) People in the United States tend to see themselves as subjugated to their environment and thus will tend to take a passive approach toward change.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) People in collectivist cultures prefer appeals for cross-functional support for innovation efforts; people in high power distance cultures prefer champions to work closely with those in authority to approve innovative activities before work is begun; and the higher the uncertainty avoidance of a society, the more champions should work within the organization’s rules and procedures to develop the innovation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.74) Managers who think ________ and recognize the importance of balancing paradoxical factors are more effective, especially in generating ________ in those they are managing.A) holistically; proactive behaviorsB) holistically; adaptive and creative behaviorsC) holistically; resistance behaviorsD) atomistically; adaptive and creative behaviorsE) atomistically; proactive behaviorsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) There is some evidence that managers who think holistically and recognize the importance of balancing paradoxical factors are more effective, especially in generating adaptive and creative behavior in those they are managing.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.75) Passion for change among ________ is greatest when work roles and the social environment encourage them to put their creative identities forward.A) mid-level managersB) high-level managersC) front-line managersD) executivesE) entrepreneursAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Situations can also influence the extent to which idea champions are forces for change.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.76) ________ is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service.A) A continuous improvement processB) Double-loop learning C) InnovationD) Process reengineeringE) Organizational streamingAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Innovation, a more specialized kind of change, is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service. So all innovations imply change, but not all changes necessarily introduce new ideas or lead to significant improvements.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.77) Which of the following statements is true regarding innovative organization?A) Organic structures negatively influence innovation.B) Interunit communication is low in innovative organizations.C) Short tenure in management is associated with innovation.D) Innovation is nurtured when there is an abundance of resources.E) Innovative organizations reward both successes and failures.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Organic structures positively influence innovation. Long tenure in management is associated with innovation. Innovation is nurtured when there are slack resources. Interunit communication is high in innovative organizations. Innovative organizations reward both successes and failures. They celebrate mistakes.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.78) Which of the following has been the most studied potential source of innovation?A) psychological factorsB) structural variablesC) human resource factorsD) cultural variablesE) financial factorsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Innovative organizations have some common characteristics and these characteristics are grouped into 3 categories, structural, cultural, and human resource categories. Out of these categories, structural variables have been the most studied potential source of innovation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.79) Which of the following characteristics is not attributed to idea champions?A) high self-confidenceB) high persistenceC) high resistanceD) high energyE) high risk-taking abilityAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Idea champions have common personality characteristics: extremely high self-confidence, persistence, energy, and a tendency to take risks. They actively and enthusiastically promote a new idea, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure it is implemented.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.80) Increasing an employee’s self-efficacy can improve an organization’s change process.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Managers can continually strive to increase employees’ self-efficacy, change-related attitudes, and perceived control over the situation to create this positive change orientation.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.81) Long tenure in management is associated with innovation.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Long tenure in management is associated with innovation. Managerial tenure apparently provides legitimacy and knowledge of how to accomplish tasks and obtain desired outcomes.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.82) Innovation is nurtured where there are slack resources.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Innovation is nurtured when there are slack resources. Having an abundance of resources allows an organization to afford to purchase innovations, bear the cost of instituting them, and absorb failures.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.83) In innovative organizations, interunit communication tends to be low.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  In innovative organizations, interunit communication tends to be high. These organizations are high users of committees, task forces, cross-functional teams, and other mechanisms that facilitate interaction across departmental lines.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.84) Please discuss the five characteristics of a learning organization.Answer:  1) There exists a shared vision that everyone agrees on. 2) People discard their old ways of thinking and the standard routines they use for solving problems or doing their jobs. 3) Members think of all organizational processes, activities, functions, and interactions with the environment as part of a system of interrelationships. 4) People openly communicate with each other across vertical and horizontal boundaries without fear of criticism and punishment. 5) People sublimate their personal self-interest and fragmented departmental interests to work together to achieve the organization’s shared vision.Diff: 3AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.85) What are the various structural variables that facilitate innovation?Answer:  Structural variables have been the most studied potential source of innovation. A comprehensive review of the structure—innovation relationship leads to the following conclusions. First, organic structures positively influence innovation. Because they’re lower in vertical differentiation, formalization, and centralization, organic organizations facilitate the flexibility, adaptation, and cross-fertilization that make the adoption of innovations easier. Second, long tenure in management is associated with innovation. Managerial tenure apparently provides legitimacy and knowledge of how to accomplish tasks and obtain desired outcomes. Third, innovation is nurtured when there are slack resources. Having an abundance of resources allows an organization to afford to purchase innovations, bear the cost of instituting them, and absorb failures. Finally, interunit communication is high in innovative organizations. These organizations are high users of committees, task forces, cross-functional teams, and other mechanisms that facilitate interaction across departmental lines.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.4 Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.86) Stress is associated with ________ and ________.A) demands; resourcesB) support; commitmentC) manipulation; cooptationD) education; communicationE) unfreezing; refreezingAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Stress is associated with demands and resources. Demands are responsibilities, pressures, obligations, and uncertainties individuals face in the workplace. Resources are things within an individual’s control that he can use to resolve those demands.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.87) Which of the following resources should you seek when emotional demands are stressing you?A) computer supportB) information supportC) social supportD) cross-functional supportE) organizational supportAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) If emotional demands are stressing you, having emotional resources in the form of social support is especially important. Under the demands-resources perspective, having resources to cope with stress is just as important in offsetting it as demands are in increasing it.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.88) ________ is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.A) ChangeB) StressC) InnovationD) StimulationE) CreativityAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.89) Which of the following statements is true regarding the effects of stress?A) Challenge stressors tend to produce more strain than hindrance stressors.B) When challenge stress increases, those with high levels of organizational support have higher role-based performance.C) Hindrance stress improves job performance in a supportive work environment.D) Employees who have a stronger affective commitment to their organization perform worse under stress as compared to those who have low levels of commitment.E) Challenge stress reduces job performance in all work environments.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) Challenge stress improves job performance in a supportive work environment, whereas hindrance stress reduces job performance in all work environments. Employees with low levels of commitment to their organization perform worse under stress as compared to those who have strong affective commitment. When challenge stress increases, those with high levels of organizational support have higher role-based performance, but those with low levels of organizational support do not.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.90) Paul is stressed with the new corporate reorganization. He now reports to a foreign office that has usurped many of his responsibilities, including the contract labor for his projects, therefore he’s working with less qualified and new contractors with whom he doesn’t have a relationship. However, the managers of the other departments find themselves in the same boat and every day they are able to laugh over lunch about their new managerial impotence. ________ is helping Paul handle his stress.A) Emotional contagionB) Cognitive dissonanceC) Social supportD) Time managementE) Self-efficacyAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Social support, collegial relationships with coworkers or supervisors, can buffer the impact of stress. It acts as a palliative, mitigating the negative effects of even high-strain jobs. Paul is using this social support to be able to laugh at his new situation.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.91) In ________ states, we work to find stability by changing our behaviors and attitudes.A) homeostaticB) equilibriumC) allostaticD) stressorE) social supportAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) While early research tended to emphasize such a homeostatic, or balanced equilibrium, perspective, it has now become clear that no single ideal state exists. Instead, it’s more accurate to talk about allostatic models in which demands shift, resources shift, and systems of addressing imbalances shift.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.92) The three main types of environmental uncertainty are ________.A) economic, political, and technologicalB) economic, social, and technologicalC) economic, political, and socialD) social, political, and technologicalE) social, political, and cultureAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) There are three main types of environmental uncertainty: economic, political, and technological.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.93) Jan is an administrative assistant. While she is good at her job, she often feels copious amounts of stress because she is constantly interrupted in her work because her desk happens to be by the front entrance to the office. Which organizational factor seems to be most affecting Jan’s stress?A) task demandsB) role demandsC) interpersonal demandsD) economic demandsE) family demandsAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Jan is having a problem with her working conditions, which are related to task demands.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.94) John works as the financial director for a business college. In addition to overseeing all of the daily expenditures of the budget, John is responsible for organizing the overtime for teachers working off contract during the summer months. During April, John had a great deal of trouble sleeping and was at the office usually 10 hours a day. Which organizational factor seems to be most affecting John’s stress?A) task demandsB) role demandsC) interpersonal demandsD) economic demandsE) family demandsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) While the salaries of the teachers are of importance to him, it is not particularly logical that John would also have to organize the overtime for the teachers. John is having an issue with role overload, which is part of role demands.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.95) Josue is an accountant for a mid-sized accounting firm and there are four other people in his department with roughly the same job description. Despite all five of them working well together, accomplishing their goals, and on occasion socializing with one another after work, Josue feels a great amount of stress at his job that the other employees do not seem to experience. Of the five employees, Josue is the only homosexual. Which organizational factor seems to be most affecting Josue’s stress?A) task demandsB) role demandsC) interpersonal demandsD) economic demandsE) family demandsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Even though the work environment is seemingly equitable in relation to job stressors, Josue seems to be feeling psychological strain due to his sexual orientation in relation to the other team members. Even though there is no evidence of discrimination, Josue may still feel the psychological strain, one of the interpersonal demands, because he feels like the outcast of the office.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.96) Jennifer is a successful nurse who is accustomed to working 50+ hours a week. Typically, she does this well and has managed to maintain a positive work life balance, despite the extended work hours. Two weeks ago, Jennifer’s son Collin needed to have surgery which required him to need at-home medical care. Despite being a nurse, Jennifer has been having trouble sleeping and has started to receive complaints about her performance at work. Which organizational factor seems to be most affecting Jennifer’s stress?A) task demandsB) role demandsC) interpersonal demandsD) economic demandsE) family demandsAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Individuals tend to hold family very dear. Even though Jennifer is a qualified and successful nurse, nursing her child is different than nursing a patient. Her personal factors, in this case caring for her son, are causing her stressors which are overlapping into her work life.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.97) Which of the Big Five personality traits is most often associated with stress?A) ConscientiousnessB) AgreeablenessC) NeuroticismD) ExtroversionE) OpennessAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Evidence suggests that neurotic individuals are more likely to find stressors in their work environments, so they believe their environments are more threatening.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.98) Which of the following stressors is likely to produce less strain than the other stressors?A) red tapeB) office politics C) confusion over job responsibilitiesD) role ambiguityE) pressure to complete tasksAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Pressure to complete tasks is a challenge stressor, whereas red tape, office politics, role conflict, and confusion over job responsibilities are hindrance stressors. Although research is just starting to accumulate, early evidence suggests challenge stressors produce less strain than hindrance stressors.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.99) Which of the following types of jobs is least likely to create stress and reduce satisfaction?A) jobs that make multiple and conflicting demandsB) jobs that provide a high level of feedbackC) jobs that lack clarity about the incumbent’s dutiesD) jobs that provide the incumbents less control over the pace of their workE) jobs that provide a low level of varietyAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Jobs that provide a low level of variety, significance, autonomy, feedback, and identity appear to create stress and reduce satisfaction and involvement in the job.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.100) Stress is really just in one’s head.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Perceptions plays a tremendous role in evaluating stressors.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.101) Research evidence indicates that hindrance stress improves job performance in a supportive work environment, whereas challenge stress reduces job performance in all work environments.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:
Research evidence indicates that challenge stress improves job performance in a supportive work environment, whereas hindrance stress reduces job performance in all work environments.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.102) Compare and contrast challenge stressors and hindrance stressors.Answer:  Recently, researchers have argued that challenge stressors—or stressors associated with workload, pressure to complete tasks, and time urgency–operate quite differently from hindrance stressors—or stressors that keep you from reaching your goals (for example, red tape, office politics, confusion over job responsibilities). Although research is just starting to accumulate, early evidence suggests challenge stressors produce less strain than hindrance stressors. A meta-analysis of responses from more than 35,000 individuals showed role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload, job insecurity, environmental uncertainty, and situational constraints were all consistently negatively related to job performance. There is also evidence that challenge stress improves job performance in a supportive work environment, whereas hindrance stress reduces job performance in all work environments.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.103) Political uncertainties have been shown not to create as much stress for countries in North America as they do for countries in South America. Why is this the case?Answer:  Responses may vary slightly but should be based on the concept that North American countries have more stable political systems than do South American countries.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.104) Technological advances in society have been shown to cause organizational stress. Why is this the case, given that changes in technology usually means work is less complicated or time consuming?Answer:  Responses may vary slightly but should be based in the idea that changes in technology makes an individual’s skill set obsolete and therefore requires them to keep up with the new skills needed to manage the technology; thus, causing the individual stress.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.105) Experience on the job tends to be negatively related to work stress. Why?Answer:  Two explanations have been offered. First is selective withdrawal. Voluntary turnover is more probable among people who experience more stress. Therefore, people who remain with an organization longer are those with more stress-resistant traits or those more resistant to the stress characteristics of the organization. Second, people eventually develop coping mechanisms to deal with stress. Because this takes time, senior members of the organization are more likely to be fully adapted and should experience less stress.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.106) Taryen is a political advisor for the governor. She typically works 12 hour days, has long meetings with other political figures, and spends many hours conducting research in solitude. Though she does experience some stress related issues, such as not being able to fall asleep quickly, she handles her stress well and even says she uses the stress to thrive! At a meeting this afternoon, Taryen spilled her water on her pants and started screaming at everyone at the meeting and even threw her laptop at the wall. Why did spilling the water cause such a violent reaction in Taryen?Answer:  Stressors are additive, meaning that they build up over time. Though she handles her organizational stressors well, the addition of one more stressor placed Taryen beyond her coping limits. Even though spilling water on one’s pants is a relatively unimportant stressor itself, it altered her level of stress to the point she could no longer handle the stress.Diff: 3AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  17.5 Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.107) The less control people have over the pace of their work, the greater the stress and dissatisfaction.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  The less control people have over the pace of their work, the greater the stress and dissatisfaction.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.6 Identify the physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms of stress at work.108) Describe the physiological consequences of stress.Answer:  Most early concern with stress was directed at physiological symptoms because most researchers were specialists in the health and medical sciences. Their work led to the conclusion that stress could create changes in metabolism, increase heart and breathing rates and blood pressure, bring on headaches, and induce heart attacks. Because symptoms are complex and difficult to measure objectively, the link between stress and particular physiological effects is not clear. Traditionally, researchers concluded there were few, if any, consistent relationships. More recently, evidence suggests stress may have harmful physiological effects. One study linked stressful job demands increase susceptibility to upper respiratory illnesses and poor immune system functioning, especially for individuals with low self-efficacy.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.6 Identify the physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms of stress at work.109) Describe the psychological consequences of stress.Answer:  Job dissatisfaction is “the simplest and most obvious psychological effect” of stress. But stress shows itself in other psychological states—for instance, tension, anxiety, irritability, boredom, and procrastination. Jobs that make multiple and conflicting demands or that lack clarity about the incumbent’s duties, authority, and responsibilities increase both stress and dissatisfaction. Similarly, the less control people have over the pace of their work, the greater the stress and dissatisfaction. Although more research is needed to clarify the relationship, jobs that provide a low level of variety, significance, autonomy, feedback, and identity appear to create stress and reduce satisfaction and involvement in the job. Not everyone reacts to autonomy in the same way, however. For those who have an external locus of control, increased job control increases the tendency to experience stress and exhaustion.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.6 Identify the physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms of stress at work.110) Describe the behavioral consequences of stress.Answer:  Research on behavior and stress has been conducted across several countries and over time, and the relationships appear relatively consistent. Behavior-related stress symptoms include reductions in productivity, absence, and turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, rapid speech, fidgeting, and sleep disorders.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.6 Identify the physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms of stress at work.111) All of the following strategies are organizational approaches to managing stress, except ________.A) employee selectionB) job placementC) realistic goal-settingD) employee sabbaticalsE) time managementAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Organizational approaches to managing stress include improved employee selection and job placement, training, realistic goal-setting, redesign of jobs, increased employee involvement, improved organizational communication, employee sabbaticals, and corporate wellness programs.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.7 Describe individual and organizational approaches to managing stress at work.112) Which of the following is not an example of a hindrance stressor?A) red tapeB) office politicsC) role ambiguityD) time urgencyE) job confusionAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Time urgency is a challenge stressor. Hindrance stressors are stressors that keep you from reaching your goals, for example, red tape, office politics, confusion over job responsibilities.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.7 Describe individual and organizational approaches to managing stress at work.113) How does redesigning jobs help reduce stress?A) It helps individuals with an internal locus of control adapt better to high-stress jobs.B) It seeks to buy off the leaders of a resistance group by giving them a key role.C) It gives individuals greater control over work activities and lessens dependence on others.D) It reduces uncertainty by lessening role ambiguity and role conflict.E) It helps employees reframe stressful situations and use active coping strategies.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Redesigning jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress because these factors give employees greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.7 Describe individual and organizational approaches to managing stress at work.114) Which of the following statements is true regarding stress?A) Employees with external locus of control tend to be less prone to stress.B) Training tends to decrease job stress.C) Highly experienced employees tend to be more prone to stress.D) Employees who are highly committed to their goals experience more stress.E) Goal feedback tends to increase stress.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) Individuals with little experience or an external locus of control tend to be more prone to stress. Training can increase an individual’s self-efficacy and thus lessen job strain. Individuals perform better when they have specific and challenging goals and receive feedback on their progress toward these goals.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.7 Describe individual and organizational approaches to managing stress at work.115) Individuals with internal locus of control tend to be more prone to stress.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Individuals with external locus of control tend to be more prone to stress.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.7 Describe individual and organizational approaches to managing stress at work.116) Discuss the various individual approaches toward managing stress.Answer:  The various individual approaches toward managing stress are:a) Time-management techniques: An understanding and utilization of basic time-management principles can help individuals better cope with tensions created by job demands.b) Physical exercise: Physicians have recommended noncompetitive physical exercise, such as aerobics, walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a bicycle, as a way to deal with excessive stress levels.c) Relaxation techniques: Individuals can teach themselves to reduce tension through relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback.d) Social support network: Expanding your social support network provides someone to hear your problems and offer a more objective perspective on the situation than your own.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.7 Describe individual and organizational approaches to managing stress at work.117) Please describe two of the various organizational approaches toward managing stress.Answer:  Responses will vary but should include two of the following approaches.a) Selection and placement: Certain jobs are more stressful than others but, as already noted, individuals differ in their response to stressful situations. We know individuals with little experience or an external locus of control tend to be more prone to stress. Selection and placement decisions should take these facts into consideration.b) Goal setting: Individuals perform better when they have specific and challenging goals and receive feedback on their progress toward these goals. Goals can reduce stress as well as provide motivation. Employees who are highly committed to their goals and see purpose in their jobs experience less stress because they are more likely to perceive stressors as challenges rather than hindrances.c) Redesigning jobs: Redesigning jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress because these factors give employees greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others.d) Increasing employee involvement: Role stress is detrimental to a large extent because employees feel uncertain about goals, expectations, how they’ll be evaluated, and the like. By giving these employees a voice in the decisions that directly affect their job performance, management can increase employee control and reduce role stress.e) Organizational communication: Increasing formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertainty by lessening role ambiguity and role conflict. Given the importance that perceptions play in moderating the stress—response relationship, management can also use effective communications as a means to shape employee perceptions.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  17.7 Describe individual and organizational approaches to managing stress at work.