Chapter09

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge)Chapter 9
Foundations of Group Behavior1) Which one of the following characteristics is not necessarily true about groups?A) Group members are interdependent.B) Groups have two or more members.C) Groups are determined by the organization chart.D) Groups interact.E) Groups have particular objectives.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) A group has two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve a particular objective.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.2) Which of the following statements is true regarding informal groups?A) Informal groups are defined by the organization’s structure.B) In informal groups, the behaviors team members should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals.C) A group of people who come together to protest against a new law is an informal group.D) The six members of an airline flight crew are an informal group.E) Command groups and task groups are examples of informal groups.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) An informal group is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. Informal groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact. Command groups and task groups are examples of formal groups. A group of people who come together to protest against a new law is an informal group.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.3) Tammy, Lisa, Bart, Madaline, and Roberto all work at Frink Electronics. After work, Tammy, Lisa, and Madaline all enjoy going to the Lux Lounge for Happy Hour. Tammy, Lisa, Bart, Madaline, and Roberto constitute a(n) ________ group.A) taskB) formalC) informalD) performanceE) actionAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) These five individuals are placed into the organization per the organizational chart.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.4) Tammy, Lisa, Bart, Madaline, and Roberto all work at Frink Electronics. After work, Tammy, Lisa, and Madaline all enjoy going to the Lux Lounge for Happy Hour. Tammy, Lisa, and Madaline constitute a(n) ________ group.A) taskB) formalC) informalD) performanceE) actionAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) These three individuals are not structured by the organization and are meeting for social contact.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.5) Julia, Bree, and David work in different departments but often eat lunch together. They are an example of a(n) ________ group.A) formalB) informalC) commandD) taskE) interestAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Informal groups, such as friendship groups, are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. An interest group consists of individuals who affiliate to attain a specific objective with which each individual is concerned. Three employees from different departments who regularly have lunch or coffee together are an informal group.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.6) Which of the following is not a reason why people join groups?A) to consume fewer hours in decision makingB) to fulfill social needs for affiliationC) to feel stronger and have fewer self-doubtsD) to achieve something that cannot be individually achievedE) to have increased feelings of worthAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The most popular reasons people have for joining groups include security, status, self-esteem, affiliation, power, and goal achievement. Group decision making consumes more hours than an individual tackling the same problem.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.7) Temporary groups with deadlines have their own unique sequencing of actions. The first of these actions is ________.A) formingB) first meetingC) normingD) transitioningE) performingAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Temporary groups with deadlines don’t seem to follow the usual five-stage model. Studies indicate they have their own unique sequencing of actions (or inaction): (1) their first meeting sets the group’s direction, (2) this first phase of group activity is one of inertia, (3) a transition takes place exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time, (4) this transition initiates major changes, (5) a second phase of inertia follows the transition, and (6) the group’s last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.8) Shehenna, Puja, and Miguel were all recently hired by Blair Industries as account representatives. During their orientation, these three discovered that they would not be receiving any paid vacation time for their first year of employment. Social identity theory tells us which of the following is likely to occur?A) The trio will quit.B) The trio will bond together closely.C) The trio will bond with others in the organization.D) The trio will turn on each other.E) The trio will sue.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) Social identity theory tells us that shared events are important and are a catalyst for group formation. As the trio in question will receive the troubling news together, they will most likely form a bond with each other that others within the organization will not share.Diff: 3AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.9) The Walt Disney Company is world renowned for its destination resorts and theme parks. The company prides itself on providing the highest quality experiences for visitors to the parks and trains its employees as “cast members” who are all part of the show. Which group of employees is most likely to be considered an “outgroup” at the theme park?A) those portraying famous Disney charactersB) those operating the ridesC) those repairing the ridesD) those cleaning the parksE) those taking the ticketsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) While all of these roles are important to the company, those repairing the rides rarely have interaction with the guests and therefore they would be considered an outgroup in relation to the other roles mentioned. Is in unlikely though that animosity would be present.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.10) The Walt Disney Company is world renowned for its destination resorts and theme parks. The company prides itself on providing the highest quality experiences for visitors to the parks and trains its employees as “cast members” who are all part of the show. Which group of employees is most likely to be considered the “ingroup” at the theme park?A) those portraying famous Disney charactersB) those operating the ridesC) those repairing the ridesD) those cleaning the parksE) those taking the ticketsAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) When one thinks of Disney Parks, most often they think about seeing the famous characters. In essence, those portraying the characters might see themselves as being the most important cast members and therefore better than those in the other roles. Disney in fact addresses this strenuously in the employee training to prevent the formation of ingroups.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.11) Social Identity Theory deals with how people group together according to race or culture.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  While race and culture may be a part of one’s social identity, social identity theory addresses how we develop group identities and personally invest in the accomplishments of a group.Diff: 1AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.12) Temporary groups with deadlines follow the five-stage group-development model of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Temporary groups with deadlines follow the punctuated-equilibrium model that has its own unique sequencing of actions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.13) Differentiate between formal and informal groups.Answer:  Formal groups are those defined by the organization’s structure, with designated work assignments establishing tasks. In formal groups, the behaviors that one should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals. Informal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.1 Distinguish between the different types of groups.14) When a group stands still or becomes locked into a fixed course of action, it is referred to being in the period of ________.A) stagnancyB) inertiaC) dormancyD) transitionE) completionAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Once a course of action has been established, that course of action directs the group, and new ideas and plans are not being implemented; thus, the group has forward inertia.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.2 Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development.15) When a group first meets, which of the following occurs?A) General purpose is defined.B) Assumptions on direction are made.C) Approach to the project is determined.D) Both A and C occur.E) A, B, and C all occur.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) At the first meeting, the group’s general purpose and direction is established, and then a frame-work of behavioral patterns and assumptions through which the group will approach its project emerges, sometimes in the first few seconds of the group’s existence.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.2 Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development.16) At the midpoint of a project, groups tend to experience all of the following exceptwhich?A) bursts of changesB) dropping of old patternsC) increased group conflictD) adoption of new perspectivesE) heightened awareness of timeAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The midpoint appears to work like an alarm clock, heightening members’ awareness that their time is limited and they need to get moving. This transition ends phase 1 and is characterized by a concentrated burst of changes, dropping of old patterns, and adoption of new perspectives. There is no indication that group conflicts increase.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.2 Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development.17) According to the punctuated-equilibrium model, which two triggers bring about brief revolutionary change during the group’s inertia?A) group conflict and missed deadlinesB) missed deadlines and resource utilizationC) resource utilization and awareness of timeD) awareness of time and awareness of deadlinesE) awareness of deadlines and group conflictAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) When individual members become aware of time and deadlines during the process, they tend to be inspired to make changes in the processes that are being followed.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.2 Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development.18) According to the punctuated-equilibrium model, once set, the group’s direction is unlikely to be reexamined throughout the first half of its life.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Once established, the inertia of the group will continue until the transition or midpoint of the project is reached.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.2 Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development.19) According to the punctuated-equilibrium model, the performance of the group decreases at the transition or midpoint of the process.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  According to the model, performance will increase significantly at the midpoint of the process.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.2 Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development.20) Please describe the six stages of the punctuated-equilibrium model.Answer:  (1) Their first meeting sets the group’s direction, (2) the first phase of group activity is one of inertia and thus slower progress, (3) a transition takes place exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time, (4) this transition initiates major changes, (5) a second phase of inertia follows the transition, and (6) the group’s last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.2 Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development.21) Role perception indicates ________.A) others’ belief regarding how you should act in a given situationB) the skills required for performing the jobC) the social norms that are to be followed while performing the roleD) our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situationE) acceptable standards of behavior shared by nongroup membersAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation is a role perception. We engage in certain types of behavior based on how we believe we are supposed to behave.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.22) Which term refers to a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit?A) normsB) statusC) roleD) cohesivenessE) diversityAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) All group members are actors, each playing a role. A role is a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.23) Role ________ indicates the way others believe you should act in a given context.A) perceptionB) identityC) expectationD) criterionE) styleAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Role expectations are the way others believe you should act in a given context.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.24) Zach is devout and very active in his church. He is also a very dedicated employee. His manager offers him a promotion but the new role will require him to work Sundays. Zach would like the promotion, but realizes that it would force him to miss some church activities. In such a situation, Zach is most likely to experience ________.A) role conflictB) emotional contagionC) cognitive dissonanceD) emotional laborE) self-concordanceAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) When compliance with one role requirement may make it difficult to comply with another, the result is role conflict. Zach is feeling conflict between his role as a church member and his role as an employee.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.25) When ________, the result is role conflict.A) we lack the skills required for performing the roleB) we do not approve of the behavioral requirements of a roleC) our view of the role is different from others’ expectations of that roleD) compliance with one role requirement may make it difficult to comply with anotherE) different groups of people associate different norms with a roleAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) When compliance with one role requirement may make it difficult to comply with another, the result is role conflict. At the extreme, two or more role expectations can be mutually contradictory.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.26) Rhoda is an executive assistant at a major medical center. Because she works directly with the head doctor, Rhoda feels that it is appropriate to council patients on their upcoming procedures. Marge, a recent graduate with a degree in Healthcare Administration, also works at the medical center and is responsible for new patients. Marge typically becomes irritated when Rhoda attempts to council new patients. Rhoda is struggling with her ________.A) role perceptionB) role expectationC) role normsD) social normsE) performance normAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Rhoda feels that because she works closely with the doctor that she has a higher level of responsibility within the medical office; however, this is an incorrect perception of her role as she is not responsible for counseling patients.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.27) Rhoda is an executive assistant at a major medical center. Because she works directly with the head doctor, Rhoda feels that it is appropriate to council patients on their upcoming procedures. Marge, a recent graduate with a degree in Healthcare Administration, also works at the medical center and is responsible for new patients. Marge typically becomes irritated when Rhoda attempts to council new patients. Marge’s irritation with Rhoda can be explained by ________.A) role perceptionB) role expectationC) role normsD) social normsE) performance normAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Marge feels that Rhoda should not be working with patients and that she, Marge, holds the expectations of working with the patients.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.28) ________ are the way others believe you should act in a given situation.A) Social identitiesB) Citizenship behaviorsC) Role expectationsD) Psychological contractsE) Group statusAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) People associate certain actions and behaviors with certain roles in society and believe that all in those roles should act accordingly.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.29) Which of the following is most likely to experience interrole conflict?A) A policewoman who is also a motherB) A college student who is also working full timeC) A politician who is also a clergymanD) An actor who is also homosexualE) A college professor who is also an authorAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) While everyone has the potential to experience role conflict, someone who is a politician is called up on to represent the population and the interests of that population. As we often see in the news, a politician who is also involved in the church struggles to find a balance on many controversial topics and therefore experiences role conflicts.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.30) Interrole conflict refers to being pulled in several different directions within the workplace.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Interrole conflict occurs when the expectations of our different, separate groups are in opposition. These groups do not necessarily have to be in the workplace.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.31) A role indicates a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  A role indicates a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.32) Role expectations indicate our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Role perception indicates our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation. Role expectations are the way others believe you should act in a given context.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.33) Explain the following terms: “role perception” and “role expectation.”Answer:  Our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation is role perception. We engage in certain types of behavior based on how we believe we are supposed to behave. We get these perceptions from stimuli all around us—for example, friends, books, films, television.Role expectation is the way others believe you should act in a given context. The role of a United States federal judge is viewed as having propriety and dignity, whereas a football coach is seen as aggressive, dynamic, and inspiring to his players.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.34) You have been working at Saxet Consulting for the past year and are expected to complete three client reviews per week. You have been very productive and have been completing two extra reviews per week. At a recent team meeting, you expected to receive praise from the President for this extra work; however, your manager took credit for the extra work and received the praise from the President. What has your manager violated and what is your likely reaction?Answer:  My manager has violated the psychological contract which exists between a manager and an employee. Managers are supposed to act in an ethical manner and not take credit for other people’s work. It is very unlikely that I will continue to complete the extra work and it is also possible I will start to exert less than expected efforts.Diff: 2AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoningQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  9.3 Show how role requirements change in different situations.35) Which of the following types of norms are likely to be the most common?A) appearance normsB) social arrangement normsC) resource allocation normsD) performance normsE) behavioral normsAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Performance norms provide explicit cues about how hard members should work, what the level of output should be, how to get the job done, what level of tardiness is appropriate, and the like. Performance norms tend to be the most common.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.36) Which of the following is not an example of a performance norm?A) when an employee needs to look busyB) how hard an employee should workC) the appropriate levels of tardinessD) the acceptable level of outputE) how to get the job doneAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Performance norm examples include: providing explicit cues about how hard members should work, what the level of output should be, how to get the job done, what level of tardiness is appropriate, and the like. When to look busy is an appearance norm.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.37) Which of the following terms best describes the acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by a group’s members?A) normsB) rulesC) statusD) traditionsE) role perceptionAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) All groups have established norms, or acceptable standards of behavior shared by their members that express what they ought and ought not to do under certain circumstances.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.38) Which of the following terms refers to the process by which an individual’s desire for acceptance by the group and the pressure by the group on individual members to match its standards results in a change in individual attitudes and behaviors?A) conformityB) coercionC) commitmentD) convergenceE) confluenceAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Conformity is the adjustment of one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. As a member of a group, you desire acceptance by the group. Thus you are susceptible to conforming to the group’s norms.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.39) The important groups to which an individual belongs or hopes to belong are known as the ________ groups.A) conformationB) referenceC) statusD) powerE) appearanceAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Reference groups are groups in which a person is aware of other members, defines himself or herself as a member or would like to be a member, and feels group members are significant to him or her.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.40) Milhouse, a classically trained violinist, recently joined a country band. The members of the band, though they like Milhouse, do not appreciate his attention to details and the preppy way he dresses. The band is pressuring Milhouse to change in order to fit into the group. Which of the following represents the most likely conformity expected of Milhouse?A) for Milhouse to bathe lessB) for Milhouse to wear jeans and bootsC) for Milhouse to play the fiddleD) both A and BE) both A and CAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The concept of conformity relates to pressuring someone to change their attitude and behavior. While he may need to play the fiddle, it is his attitude toward dress that is the major obstacle to his fitting in with the group.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.41) Which of the following statements is true regarding behavior in a group?A) Group norms do not press us toward conformity.B) A recent study suggests those working in a group were less likely to lie, cheat, and steal than individuals working alone.C) Conformity to social norms is higher in individualistic cultures as compared to that in collectivist cultures.D) Deviant workplace behavior is likely to flourish where it’s supported by group norms.E) The low-status people in the group speak more often as compared to the high-status people.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) A recent study suggests those working in a group were more likely to lie, cheat, and steal than individuals working alone. Deviant workplace behavior is likely to flourish where it’s supported by group norms.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.42) ________ can increase the power of norms.A) CommunicationB) EmotionsC) Group statusD) Role expectationsE) Social identityAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Increased levels of communication work to strengthen norms.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.43) Research has indicated that in gender-diverse groups, strong politically correct norms increase group ________.A) dissentionB) citizenship behaviorsC) turnoverD) creativityE) expectationsAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The clear expectations about male-female interactions usually present in high PC environments reduce uncertainty about group expectations, which allows the members to more easily express their creative ideas without combatting stereotype norms.Diff: 1AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.44) Which of the following terms best represents voluntary actions that violate significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members?A) negativity offsetB) deviant workplace behaviorC) self-concordanceD) emotional contagionE) positivity offsetAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Deviant workplace behavior (also called counterproductive behavior or employee withdrawal) is voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.45) As compared to collectivist cultures, conformity to social norms is higher in individualistic cultures.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Conformity to social norms is higher in collectivist cultures, but it is still a powerful force in groups in individualistic countries.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.46) What is deviant workplace behavior? How is deviant workplace behavior influenced by the group to which the individual belongs?Answer:  Deviant workplace behavior (also called antisocial behavior or workplace incivility) is voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members.Like norms in general, individual employees’ antisocial actions are shaped by the group context within which they work. Evidence demonstrates that antisocial behavior exhibited by a work group is a significant predictor of an individual’s antisocial behavior at work. In other words, deviant workplace behavior is likely to flourish where it’s supported by group norms. Workers who socialize either at or outside work with people who are frequently absent from work are more likely to be absent themselves. Someone who ordinarily wouldn’t engage in deviant behavior might be more likely to do so when working in a group. A recent study suggests those working in a group were more likely to lie, cheat, and steal than individuals working alone. Thus, deviant behavior depends on the accepted norms of the group—or even whether an individual is part of a group.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.4 Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.47) Which of the following statements is true regarding the effect of status on group interaction?A) Lower-status members state fewer commands than high status members.B) Lower-status members tend to be more assertive group members as compared to high-status members.C) Lower-status members speak more often as compared to high-status members.D) Lower-status members interrupt others more often compared to high-status members.E) As compared to high-status members, lower-status members tend to participate in group discussions more actively.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) High-status people tend to be more assertive group members. They speak out more often, criticize more, state more commands, and interrupt others more often. Lower-status members tend to participate less actively in group discussions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.48) According to status characteristics theory, which of the following factors does not determine status?A) control over the resources needed by the groupB) contribution to goalsC) ability to conform to group normsD) personalityE) talentAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) According to status characteristics theory, status tends to derive from one of three sources: the power a person wields over others; a person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals; and an individual’s personal characteristics (special talent, intelligence, money, or a friendly personality).Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.49) Which of the following statements is true regarding the effect of status on conformity pressure?A) High-status individuals are often given less freedom to deviate from norms than are other group members.B) People in high-status jobs have especially negative reactions to social pressure exerted by people in low-status jobs.C) Lower-status people are better able to resist conformity pressures than their high-status peers.D) Groups exert equal conformity pressure on all individuals regardless of their status.E) As compared to high-status members, low-status members are given a wider range of discretion as long as their activities aren’t severely detrimental to group goal achievement.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) High-status individuals are often given more freedom to deviate from norms than are other group members. People in high-status jobs (such as physicians, lawyers, or executives) have especially negative reactions to social pressure exerted by people in low-status jobs. Physicians actively resist administrative decisions made by lower-ranking insurance company employees.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.50) Groups of approximately ________ members tend to be more effective for taking action.A) twoB) sevenC) elevenD) sixteenE) twenty-oneAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Smaller groups of about seven members are better at doing something productive.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.51) Which of the following terms indicates the tendency of individuals to spend less effort when working collectively?A) groupthinkB) collective efficacyC) social loafingD) groupshiftE) clusteringAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Social loafing is the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working in a group than when working individually. Group performance increases with group size, but the addition of new members has diminishing returns on productivity.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.52) Which of the following is an effective means of countering social loafing?A) increase the rewards the group is given if it succeedsB) increase the amount by which the group’s progress is monitoredC) ensure that individual contributions to the group’s outcome are identifiedD) increase the size of the groupE) increase the group’s work loadAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Since group results cannot be attributed to any single person, the relationship between an individual’s input and the group’s output is clouded. Individuals may then be tempted to become free riders and coast on the group’s efforts. To avoid this, individual efforts in a group’s outcome should be identified.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.53) Joe is the manager of the marketing department of an organization. He is restructuring his department and is creating teams to increase the effectiveness of his department. He recognizes that the size of groups impacts their overall behavior and effectiveness. Joe is forming a fact-finding group. What would be the better group size to gain diverse input?A) twoB) fiveC) sevenD) tenE) over twelveAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) When it comes to problem solving or fact-finding, large groups consistently get better marks than their smaller counterparts. Groups with a dozen or more members are good for gaining diverse input.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.54) Most likely, what would be the size of the group that is expected to implement a marketing plan?A) twoB) fiveC) sevenD) tenE) over twelveAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Groups of approximately seven members tend to be more effective for taking action. Implementing a marketing plan (that is already designed by someone else) involves taking action. Hence the appropriate size of the group is approximately seven members.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.55) Julio and Waylin both work at a trendy uptown clothing store and were hired at the same time. Julio was recently promoted over Waylin (who is balding), even though Julio often misses work. Which element of status explains this occurrence?A) power a person wield over othersB) person’s ability to contribute to group goalsC) an individual’s personal characteristicsD) group interactionsE) the size of the organizationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Even though he appears to not be as dedicated an employee, Julio must be better looking than Waylin, which is beneficial to the mission of the organization.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.56) The idea of social loafing is most prominent in which country?A) ChinaB) IsraelC) SerbiaD) RussiaE) CanadaAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Social loafing has a Western bias and is consistent with individualistic cultures, such as Canada and the United States.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.57) Since group results cannot be attributed to any single person, the relationship between an individual’s input and the group’s output is clouded and this increases the possibility of ________.A) self-concordanceB) emotional contagionC) negative offsetD) social loafingE) emotional laborAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Social loafing refers to the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than alone. Since group results cannot be attributed to any single person, the relationship between an individual’s input and the group’s output is clouded and this increases the possibility of social loafing.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.58) Low-status groups, perhaps in response to discrimination, are likely to leverage ________ to compete for higher status.A) ingroup fightingB) outgroup fightingC) citizenship behaviorsD) outgroup favoritismE) ingroup favoritismAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Leveraging ingroup favoritism allows individuals or groups to improve their status, usually though ingratiation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.59) High-status group members interrupt others more often than low-status members.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  High-status group members speak out more often, criticize more, state more commands, and interrupt others more often.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.60) High-status members of groups are often given less freedom to deviate from norms than are other group members.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  High-status individuals are often given more freedom to deviate from norms than are other group members. As high-status individuals, they’re given a wider range of discretion as long as their activities aren’t severely detrimental to group goal achievement.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.61) In order to avoid status inequity, organizations should remove elements which cause status, such as job titles and chains of command.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  To avoid issues of status inequity, organizations must make sure that group members believe the status hierarchy is equitable.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.62) According to the status characteristics theory, what are the three sources of status?Answer:  According to status characteristics theory, status tends to derive from one of three sources:1. The power a person wields over others. Because they likely control the group’s resources, people who control the outcomes tend to be perceived as high status.2. A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals. People whose contributions are critical to the group’s success tend to have high status.3. An individual’s personal characteristics. Someone whose personal characteristics are positively valued by the group (good looks, intelligence, money, or a friendly personality) typically has higher status than someone with fewer valued attributes.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.63) Gottfried lives in a fairly upscale apartment complex whose residents are all young professionals. Gottfried is a friendly person and is usually nice to everyone, including the maintenance staff at the apartment. On Saturday, Gottfried went to the apartment pool party and was seen talking to the maintenance staff on his way into the pool area. During the party, Gottfried was shunned by the other people. Why did this happen?Answer:  Gottfried was stigmatized by associating with the maintenance staff. In this situation, the young professionals in the apartment view themselves as being of a certain status and, as it common in society, those in maintenance roles are seen as being of a lowly status. Because Gottfried was seen associating with the maintenance staff, his status was stigmatized by association.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.64) What are some ways to prevent social loafing?Answer:  While there will be some variety in the specifics, responses should be based on some of the following principles: (1) set group goals, so the group has a common purpose to strive toward; (2) increase intergroup competition, which focuses on the shared group outcome; (3) engage in peer evaluations; (4) select members who have high motivation and prefer to work in groups; and (5) base group rewards in part on each member’s unique contributions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.65) How does group size affect a group’s behavior?Answer:  The evidence indicates that smaller groups are faster at completing tasks than are larger ones, and that individuals perform better in smaller groups. However, if the group is engaged in problem solving, large groups consistently get better marks than their smaller counterparts. Translating these results into specific numbers is a bit more hazardous, but we can offer some parameters. Large groups—with a dozen or more members—are good for gaining diverse input. So if the goal of the group is fact-finding, larger groups should be more effective. On the other hand, smaller groups are better at doing something productive with that input. Groups of approximately seven members, therefore, tend to be more effective for taking action.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.5 Show how status and size differences affect group performance.66) Which of the following terms indicates the degree to which group members are attracted to one another and are motivated to stay in the group?A) cohesivenessB) integrationC) sociabilityD) reliabilityE) interdependenceAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Cohesiveness describes the degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group. Cohesiveness is important because it affects group productivity.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.67) Which of the following statements is true regarding the effect of group cohesiveness and performance norms on group productivity?A) When cohesiveness is low and performance norms are also low, productivity will be high.B) The productivity of the group is affected by the performance norms but not by the cohesiveness of the group.C) If cohesiveness is high and performance norms are low, productivity will be high.D) If cohesiveness is low and performance norms are high, productivity will be low.E) When both cohesiveness and performance norms are high, productivity will be high.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Studies consistently show that the relationship between cohesiveness and productivity depends on the group’s performance-related norms. If performance-related norms are high, a cohesive group will be more productive than will a less cohesive group. If cohesiveness is high and performance norms are low, productivity will be low. If cohesiveness is low and performance norms are high, productivity increases, but less than in the high-cohesiveness/high-norms situation. When cohesiveness and performance-related norms are both low, productivity tends to fall into the low-to-moderate range.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.68) Which of the following is not likely to encourage group cohesiveness?A) stimulating competition with other groupsB) increasing the size of the groupC) obtaining agreement upon the established goalsD) increasing the group’s status and the perceived difficulty of attaining membershipE) physically isolating the groupAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Making smaller groups encourages group cohesiveness.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.69) Alberto is working with a group of fifteen people to coordinate the merger of two corporations. Everyone in the group is highly qualified, offers relevant information, and has high norms. Still, the group seems to be slow at outlining a definitive plan for the merger. With the information provided, what would be the fastest and best way for Alberto to increase cohesiveness and productivity?A) hold long meetings at a restaurant or in a social settingB) stimulate competition within the groupC) decrease the time members spend togetherD) decrease the size of the groupE) invite more members into the groupAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) If both cohesiveness and performance norms are high, the productivity tends to be high. The group already has high performance norms so Alberto should try to increase the cohesiveness of the group. Alberto should immediately decrease the size of the group, as fifteen people is too large, and a smaller group will increase cohesiveness. Instead of a social setting, the group should be isolated, and rewarded as a group, not individually. To increase cohesiveness of the group, members should spend more time together.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.70) Which of the following factors corresponds to deep-level diversity in groups?A) national origin, race, and genderB) roles, status, and powerC) ability, intelligence, and personalityD) underlying attitudes, values, and opinionsE) security, self-esteem, and affiliationAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Surface-level diversity—in observable characteristics such as national origin, race, and gender—alerts people to possible deep-level diversity in underlying attitudes, values, and opinions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.71) Which of the following is not a characteristic of group diversity?A) increased conflictsB) lower group moraleC) higher dropout ratesD) decreased cohesivenessE) greater factual errorsAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Studies have found that diversity increases group conflict, lowers group morale, raises dropout rates, and lowers cohesiveness. However, diverse groups tend to deliberate longer, share more information, and make fewer factual errors.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.72) Gender diversity can be a challenge to a group, but if inclusiveness is stressed, ________ and ________ are lowered.A) harassment; discriminationB) discrimination; statusC) status; group conflictD) group conflict; dissatisfactionE) dissatisfaction; harassmentAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) If the environment truly seeks to be inclusive of all groups, including gender, than conflicts and dissatisfaction are naturally lowered.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.73) If a group is highly cohesive then it will be highly productive even with low performance norms.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Studies consistently show that the relationship between cohesiveness and productivity depends on the group’s performance-related norms. If performance-related norms for quality, output, and cooperation with outsiders, for instance, are high, a cohesive group will be more productive than will a less cohesive group. But if cohesiveness is high and performance norms are low, productivity will be low.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.74) Increasing the group’s status and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership encourages group cohesiveness.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Increasing the group’s status and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership encourages group cohesiveness.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.75) The degree to which members of the group are similar to, or different from, one another is considered as diversity.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Diversity in the group’s membership is the degree to which members of the group are similar to, or different from, one another.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.76) Describe the relationship between cohesiveness and productivity.Answer:  The relationship of cohesiveness and productivity depends on the performance-related norms established by the group. If performance-related norms are high, a cohesive group will be more productive than will a less cohesive group. But if cohesiveness is high and performance norms are low, productivity will be low. If cohesiveness is low and performance norms are high, productivity increases but less than in the high cohesiveness/high norms situation. When cohesiveness and performance-related norms are both low, productivity will tend to fall into the low-to-moderate range.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.6 Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.77) Which is not a weakness of group decision making?A) Group decision making is time consuming.B) Group decisions tend to be less creative than individual decisions.C) Group decisions suffer from ambiguous responsibility.D) Group decisions can be dominated by one or a few members.E) In a group decision, the responsibility of any single member is diluted.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) If creativity is important, groups tend to be more effective. They offer increased diversity of views and more complete information and knowledge. Group decision making is time consuming and it suffers from ambiguous responsibility. Group decisions can be dominated by one or a few members.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.78) Which of the following statements is true regarding group decision making?A) If creativity is important then individuals tend to be more effective than groups.B) Group decision making tends to decrease the acceptance of the solution.C) Group decisions are typically less time consuming than individual decisions.D) Group decisions are generally less accurate than the decisions of the average individual in a group.E) Groups generate more complete information and knowledge than individuals.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Group decisions are time consuming because groups typically take more time to reach a solution. Group decisions are generally more accurate than the decisions of the average individual in a group. If creativity is important, groups tend to be more effective. Groups lead to increased acceptance of a solution. Groups generate more complete information and knowledge than individuals.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.79) The phenomenon of ________ describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views.A) social loafingB) groupshiftC) groupthinkD) group polarizationE) satisficingAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Groupthink relates to norms and describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.80) In discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions they hold. This phenomenon is called ________.A) self-concordanceB) groupshiftC) satisficingD) emotional laborE) groupthinkAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) In discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions they hold. This phenomenon is called groupshift. Group discussion leads members toward a more extreme view of the position they already held. Conservatives become more cautious, and more aggressive types take on more risk.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.81) If you ever felt like speaking up in a meeting, a classroom, or an informal group but decided against it then the reason behind it could be ________.A) self-efficacyB) positivity offsetC) groupthinkD) self-concordanceE) groupshiftAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The phenomenon of groupthink describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views. So if you felt like speaking up in a meeting, a classroom, or an informal group but decided against it then the reason behind it could be groupthink.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.82) Sandy, Gale, and Marylou are on the board of directors for an area non-profit organization. At a recent meeting, guest David delivered a rousing speech on how group leadership is often too complex and that non-profits could often be better served by a CEO and no board of directors. Sandy emphatically disagreed with David stating that not having the board could open the organization up to massive levels of corruption. Gale agreed with David and feels that maybe the organization might do better if only one of the ladies were in charge, mainly herself. Marylou chose not to comment on the matter, thus leading Sandy to assume that she agreed with her. It could be said that Sandy is suffering from ________.A) groupthinkB) groupshiftC) group polarizationD) both A and BE) all, A, B, and CAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Sandy is suffering first from groupthink because she is assuming, due to her silence, that Marylou agrees with her. Sandy is also suffering from groupshift because her views have become very extreme due to David’s actions.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.83) Sandy, Gale, and Marylou are on the board of directors for an area non-profit organization. At a recent meeting, guest David delivered a rousing speech on how group leadership is often too complex and that non-profits could often be better served by a CEO and no board of directors. Sandy emphatically disagreed with David stating that not having the board could open the organization up to massive levels of corruption. Gale agreed with David and feels that maybe the organization might do better if only one of the ladies were in charge, mainly herself. Marylou chose not to comment on the matter, thus leading Sandy to assume that she agreed with her. It could be said that Sandy and Gale are suffering from ________.A) groupthinkB) groupshiftC) group polarizationD) both A and BE) all, A, B, and CAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Sandy and Gale are both suffering from groupshift in their dramatic change in beliefs, caused mainly by their being influenced by David. The thoughts of the two women have dramatically polarized the individual beliefs of the group.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.84) Which of the following steps can be taken by a manager to minimize groupthink?A) Increase the group size.B) Encourage group leaders to express their own opinions especially in the early stages of deliberation.C) Prevent all team members from playing the role of “devil’s advocate.”D) Ask the group members to first focus on the positives of an alternative rather than the negatives.E) Ask the group leader to actively seek input from all members.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) In order to minimize groupthink, managers should encourage group leaders to play an impartial role. Leaders should actively seek input from all members and avoid expressing their own opinions, especially in the early stages of deliberation. In addition, managers should appoint one group member to play the role of devil’s advocate; this member’s role is to overtly challenge the majority position and offer divergent perspectives.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.85) Your organization has recently started using group decision making. You are most likely to observe that ________.A) group decision making is slower than individual decision makingB) group decision making leads to decreased acceptance of the solutionC) groups generate less information and knowledge than individualsD) group decisions are less creative than individual decisionsE) group decisions are more accurate than the judgments of the most accurate individual in the groupAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Groups generate more complete information and knowledge. Group decisions are time consuming because groups typically take more time to reach a solution. Group decisions are generally more accurate than the decisions of the average individual in a group but less accurate than the judgments of the most accurate. In terms of speed, individuals are superior. If creativity is important, groups tend to be more effective.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.86) You have observed that the group tends to come to consensus very quickly and there appears to be an illusion of unanimity. You conclude that they may be suffering from ________.A) negative affectB) groupshiftC) cognitive dissonanceD) groupthinkE) positivity offsetAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Groupthink relates to norms and describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.87) Which of the following is a group decision-making technique?A) mind mappingB) brainstormingC) lateral thinkingD) group polarizationE) morphological analysisAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Brainstorming is a group decision-making technique.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.88) While using which of the following type of group decision-making techniques is a group more likely to experience increased groupthink?A) interacting groupB) brainstormingC) video conferenceD) nominal group techniqueE) electronic meetingAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) In interacting groups, members meet face to face and rely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate. But interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion, generating fewer ideas.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.89) Patricia needs as many creative ideas as she can get for the new advertising campaign, and her small agency doesn’t have a lot of money for high-tech meeting facilities. Given the information provided, which meeting technique will provide the highest number of quality ideas?A) interacting groupsB) brainstormingC) nominal group techniqueD) electronic meetingE) social interactionAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The nominal group technique restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision-making process. Nominal group technique is an inexpensive means for generating a large number of ideas.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.90) Maya just got out of a meeting. She is extremely frustrated because nothing got done and now she has to deal with workplace drama. Sophia is threatening to quit because the group members severely criticized her idea without even giving her a chance to complete her point. The entire meeting turned into a conflict management session for Maya. Which of the following meeting techniques was most likely used by Maya?A) interacting groupB) brainstormingC) nominal groupD) electronic meetingE) video conferencingAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Interacting groups often pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion. Brainstorming and the nominal group technique have been proposed as ways to reduce problems inherent in the traditional interacting group. Brainstorming can overcome the pressures for conformity that dampen creativity by encouraging any and all alternatives while withholding criticism.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.91) ________ is good for achieving commitment to a solution.A) An interacting groupB) BrainstormingC) Nominal group techniqueD) Electronic meetingE) Delphi techniqueAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) In interacting groups, members meet face to face and rely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate. An interacting group is good for achieving commitment to a solution.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.92) In this group discussion technique, the group leader states the problem in a clear manner so all participants understand. Members then freewheel as many alternatives as they can in a given length of time. No criticism is allowed, and all alternatives are recorded for later discussion and analysis. One idea stimulates others, and judgments of even the most bizarre suggestions are withheld until later to encourage group members to “think the unusual.” Identify the decision-making technique in the discussion.A) group polarizationB) morphological analysisC) mind mappingD) electronic meetingE) brainstormingAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Brainstorming can overcome the pressures for conformity that dampen creativity by encouraging any and all alternatives while withholding criticism. During brainstorming, one idea stimulates others, and judgments of even the most bizarre suggestions are withheld until later to encourage group members to “think the unusual.”Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.93) Which of the following statements is true regarding brainstorming?A) Brainstorming encourages criticizing an idea as early as possible.B) Brainstorming overcomes the problem of “production blocking.”C) Brainstorming can overcome the pressures for conformity.D) Research consistently shows that a group in a brainstorming session generates more ideas than an individual working alone.E) Brainstorming fails to develop group cohesiveness.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Brainstorming can overcome the pressures for conformity that dampen creativity by encouraging any and all alternatives while withholding criticism. Research consistently shows individuals working alone generate more ideas than a group in a brainstorming session. One reason for this is “production blocking.” When people are generating ideas in a group, many are talking at once, which blocks the thought process and eventually impedes the sharing of ideas. Brainstorming develops group cohesiveness.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.94) Hubert needs an instruction manual for his new product. He needs a small team of technical writers to work together closely to rapidly write the manual. He needs them to communicate ideas quickly, creatively, and affordably. Which of the following group techniques should Hubert consider?A) nominal and electronicB) nominal and interactingC) brainstorming and electronicD) electronic and interactingE) interacting and brainstormingAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Hubert needs a group with high creativity, high cohesion, and low expense. He should choose either interacting or brainstorming techniques to get his task completed. Nominal techniques, although high in creativity and affordability, are slow and only moderately cohesive. Electronic techniques are slow and expensive and have zero cohesion.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.95) You decide that your company’s choice of which new product to manufacture needs to have widespread acceptance and that this decision needs to be of the highest quality possible. Having read the literature on decision making, you believe that this choice needs to be made by a group of your best managers. You have decided to use the nominal group technique. Which of the following statements is true about this method?A) This method is good for building group cohesiveness.B) This method is good for processing ideas rapidly.C) This method is good for encouraging independent thinking.D) This method is not an inexpensive means for generating a large number of ideas.E) This method is good for achieving commitment to a solution.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Nominal group technique is a group decision-making method in which individual members meet face to face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion. It does not restrict independent thinking.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.96) You are likely to select nominal group technique over brainstorming because ________.A) nominal group technique involves a great deal of face-to-face interactionB) brainstorming encourages severe criticism to all ideasC) research generally shows nominal groups outperform brainstorming groupsD) brainstorming decreases group cohesivenessE) during brainstorming sessions, group members feel high pressure for conformityAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The chief advantage of the nominal group technique is that it permits a group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thinking, as does an interacting group. Research generally shows nominal groups outperform brainstorming groups.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.97) The chief advantage of the nominal group technique is that it permits the group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thinking, as does the interacting group.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  The chief advantage of the nominal group technique is that it permits a group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thinking, as does an interacting group. Research generally shows nominal groups outperform brainstorming groups.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.98) Research consistently shows that a group in a brainstorming session generates more ideas than an individual working alone.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Research consistently shows individuals working alone generate more ideas than a group in a brainstorming session.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.99) Individual decisions are more time consuming than group decisions.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Group decisions have their drawbacks. They’re time consuming because groups typically take more time to reach a solution.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.100) If creativity is important, then individual decision making tends to be more effective than group decision making.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  If creativity is important, then group decision making tends to be more effective than individual decision making.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.101) Group decisions are generally less accurate than the judgments of the most accurate individual in the group.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Group decisions are generally more accurate than the decisions of the average individual in a group but less accurate than the judgments of the most accurate member.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.102) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of group decisions as compared to individual decisions.Answer:  Group decisions are generally more accurate than the decisions of the average individual in a group but less accurate than the judgments of the most accurate. In terms of speed, individuals are superior. If creativity is important, groups tend to be more effective. And if effectiveness means the degree of acceptance the final solution achieves, the nod again goes to the group. With few exceptions, group decision making consumes more work hours than if an individual were to tackle the same problem alone. Because groups can include members from diverse areas, the time spent searching for information can be reduced. Groups are generally less efficient than individuals.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.103) Explain the following terms: “groupthink” and “groupshift.”Answer:  Groupthink is related to norms. It describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views. Groupthink is a disease that attacks many groups and can dramatically hinder their performance. Groupshift indicates that in discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions that they hold. What appears to happen in groups is that the discussion leads members toward a more extreme view of the position they already held. Conservatives become more cautious, and more aggressive types take on more risk.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  9.7 Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.