Chapter05

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge)Chapter 5
Personality and Values1) According to Gordon Allport, ________ is/are defined as “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.”A) valuesB) beliefsC) personalityD) attitudesE) perceptionsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The definition of personality we most frequently use was produced by Gordon Allport nearly 70 years ago. He said personality is “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.”Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.1 Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it.2) ________ is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.A) TalentB) SkillC) KnowledgeD) IntelligenceE) PersonalityAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.1 Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it.3) Which of the following statements is true about personality?A) Personality is independent of environmental factors.B) Personality is static.C) The most common means of measuring personality is through personal interviews.D) Personality is not affected by hereditary factors.E) Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. Personality appears to be a result of both hereditary and environmental factors and it changes over time. We most often describe personality in terms of the measurable traits a person exhibits. The most common means of measuring personality is through self-report surveys.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.1 Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it.4) Marshall and Joe are brothers. Both are very interested in board games and both are very intellectual. Marshall is very kind and caring while Joe is a bit of a nerd. What is the role that genetics has likely played in the personalities of the two brothers?A) most likely nothing, it is all about life experienceB) maybe some, after all, they probably grew up togetherC) even split, genetics and life experience have shaped themD) probably little, genetics are a big factorE) everything, you are who you areAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Researchers have found through twin studies that genetics play about 50 percent of the role in determining one’s personality.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  5.1 Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it.5) According to research, which of the following factors is most likely to influence personality?A) educationB) heredityC) friendsD) moodsE) economic backgroundAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Personality appears to be a result of both hereditary and environmental factors. However, research has tended to support the importance of heredity over the environment.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.1 Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it.6) As organizational behaviorists, we organize characteristics by overall traits describing the ________ and ________ of a person’s personality.A) strength; growthB) growth; developmentC) development; positivityD) positivity; negativityE) negativity; strengthAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Though a myriad of adjectives can be used to describe personality, OB professionals categorize traits into the growth and development of one’s personality.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.1 Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it.7) Personality appears to be a result of both hereditary and environmental factors but research has tended to support the importance of the environment over heredity.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Personality appears to be a result of both hereditary and environmental factors. However, research has tended to support the importance of heredity over the environment.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.1 Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it.8) Personality traits are relatively consistent over time.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  When one exhibits a trait consistently and in a large number of situations, it is considered a trait of their personality. Otherwise, it is a behavior.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  5.1 Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it.9) Define personality.Answer:  According to Gordon Allport, personality is “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.” Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. We most often describe it in terms of the measurable traits a person exhibits. Early work on the structure of personality tried to identify and label enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior, including shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal, and timid traits. When someone exhibits these characteristics in a large number of situations, we call them personality traits of that person. The more consistent the characteristic over time, and the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations, the more important that trait is in describing the individual. Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.1 Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it.10) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the “________” type are practical and prefer routine and order.A) sensingB) introvertedC) feelingD) perceivingE) extravertedAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the sensing type are practical and prefer routine and order. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions while handling problems. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous. Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.11) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the “________” type are flexible and spontaneous.A) thinkingB) extravertedC) introvertedD) feelingE) perceivingAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the perceiving type are flexible and spontaneous. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions while handling problems. Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy. Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.12) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the “judging” type ________.A) are quiet and shyB) rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture”C) want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structuredD) are outgoing, sociable, and assertiveE) rely on their personal values and emotionsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the judging type want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.13) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the ________ type are visionaries. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. They are skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often stubborn.A) ESTJB) INTJC) ENTP D) ISTJ E) ESFPAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the INTJ (Introverted, Intuitive, Thinking, Judging) type are visionaries. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. They are skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often stubborn.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.14) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the “intuitive” type ________.A) are flexible and spontaneousB) are outgoing, sociable, and assertiveC) rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture”D) want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structuredE) rely on their personal values and emotionsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the intuitive type rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture.”Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.15) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classifies people in all of the following categories except ________.A) extraverted/introvertedB) sensing/intuitiveC) perceiving/judgingD) independent/dependentE) thinking/feelingAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) In the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, individuals are classified as extraverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving ( J or P). Therefore, independent/dependent is not an MBTI classification.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.16) What does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification of “E or I” stand for?A) extraverted/intuitive B) emotional/introvertedC) extraverted/introverted D) emotional/intuitive E) empathetic/innovativeAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) In the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, individuals are classified as extraverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving ( J or P).Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.17) A major concern with the use of the MBTI is that it ________.A) has a high error rateB) is easily manipulated through identity managementC) forces individuals into one category or anotherD) is more favorable toward those in individualistic culturesE) permits employers to racially discriminate against applicantsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Within the MBTI, there is no in-between within the categories forcing the participate to be either one way or another. When people retake the assessment, they often end up with a different result.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.18) What does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification of “S or N” stand for?A) sensing/intuitiveB) social/thinkingC) stable/informativeD) sensitive/thinkingE) stable/innovativeAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) In the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, individuals are classified as extraverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving (J or P).Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.19) An individual who is described as an ESTJ (Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator can be best described as a(n) ________.A) visionaryB) conceptualizer C) innovator D) organizer E) leader Answer:  DExplanation:  D) ESTJs (extraverted, sensing, thinking, judging) are organizers. They are realistic, logical, analytical, and decisive and have a natural head for business or mechanics. They like to organize and run activities.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.20) The “Big Five” personality traits include all but which of the following?A) ConscientiousnessB) Self-confidenceC) ExtraversionD) Openness to experienceE) AgreeablenessAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Self-confidence is a factor within Emotional Stability, which is the fifth trait.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.21) You wish to hire a person who is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and entrepreneurial. Candidates for this position would ideally have ________ classification on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.A) INTJB) ESTJC) ENTPD) ISFPE) ESTPAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The ENTP (Extraverted, Intuitive, Thinking, Perceiving) type is a conceptualizer, innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.22) Holly is a highly motivated professional who likes to take on new tasks and makes certain that everything she does is done to perfection. In which two of the Big Five personality traits would Holly most likely score high?A) conscientiousness and emotional stabilityB) emotional stability and extroversionC) extroversion and openness to experienceD) openness to experience and emotional stabilityE) extroversion and conscientiousnessAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) As someone who likes to take on new roles, Holly is open to experiences. That she is often a perfectionist is indicative of emotional stability.Diff: 2AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.23) The ________ is the most widely used personality assessment instrument in the world.A) Rokeach value surveyB) Raymond Cattell 16 Personality Factors modelC) Thematic Apperception testD) Big Five personality modelE) Myers-Briggs Type IndicatorAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is the most widely used personality assessment instrument in the world. It is a 100-question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.24) What is the major problem with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as a measure of personality?A) It is very difficult to administer.B) It forces a person to be categorized as either one type or another.C) It does not include enough dimensions to differentiate all the variety of human personality.D) It tends to overemphasize intuitive personality traits over analytical personality traits.E) It does not clearly classify a person into any single type.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) Evidence is mixed about the MBTI’s validity as a measure of personality, with most of the evidence suggesting it is not a good indicator. One problem is that the test forces a person into either one type or another (that is, you’re either introverted or extraverted). There is no in-between, though people can be both extraverted and introverted to some degree.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.25) Marylyn is a very driven person who seeks to push ideas forward to keep people on their toes; however, she also has a problem with stepping on peoples toes and being overly critical of others. Marylyn probably has high ________ and low ________.A) emotional stability; agreeablenessB) openness to experience; agreeablenessC) conscientiousness; emotional stabilityD) conscientiousness; openness to experienceE) agreeableness; emotional stabilityAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) One who is highly motivated within their work most likely has a high level of conscientiousness and reliability. One who demonstrates negative attitudes toward others most likely has elements of negative emotional stability.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.26) Individuals who are hypervigilant and vulnerable would most likely score low on ________.A) agreeablenessB) openness to experiencesC) emotional stabilityD) conscientiousnessE) extraversionAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Being hypervigilant and vulnerable are traits of neuroticism, a trait on the low side of emotional stability.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.27) Which of the following is not one of the five factors included in the Big Five Model?A) agreeablenessB) conscientiousnessC) intuitivenessD) emotional stabilityE) extraversionAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The big five personality factors are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience. Intuitiveness is not a factor.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.28) Which dimension of the Big Five Model refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others? A) conscientiousnessB) agreeablenessC) extraversionD) openness to experienceE) emotional stabilityAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.29) Highly conscientious individuals may tend to do all but which of the following?A) put family behind workB) put themselves before othersC) have trouble learning complex skillsD) work to create new and more effective methodsE) focus more on performing rather than learningAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Those high in conscientiousness tend to have trouble in creative situations because they desire to do things perfectly on the first try.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.30) According to the Big Five Model, a person who scores ________ is easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.A) low on emotional stabilityB) high on openness to experienceC) low on agreeablenessD) high on extraversionE) low on conscientiousnessAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) According to the Big Five Model, a person who scores low on conscientiousness is easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.31) According to the Big Five Model, people who score high on the ________ dimension are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive.A) emotional stabilityB) extraversionC) openness to experienceD) agreeablenessE) conscientiousnessAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.32) According to the Big Five Model, a highly conscientious person is most likely to be ________.A) gregarious, assertive, and sociableB) nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecureC) creative, curious, and artistically sensitiveD) responsible, organized, dependable, and persistentE) reserved, timid, and quietAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.33) Which dimension of the Big Five Model is a measure of reliability?A) extraversion B) agreeablenessC) conscientiousness D) openness to experienceE) emotional stabilityAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.34) The traits of Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy are often grouped under the title ________.A) The Dark TriadB) The Dark PersonalityC) Type A PersonalityD) Criminal MindsE) The Other HalfAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) These traits are not clinical pathologies hindering everyday functioning. They might be expressed particularly strongly when an individual is under stress and unable to moderate any inappropriate responses.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.35) Marina loves to visit a new country every year. Her hobbies are visiting museums, painting, traveling, and learning new languages. Which dimension of the Big Five Model best describes Marina, according to her hobbies?A) extraversionB) agreeablenessC) conscientiousnessD) openness to experienceE) emotional stabilityAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the openness category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.36) ________ is as important for managers as for front-line employees and among all big five traits, this trait is most consistently related to job performance.A) ExtraversionB) AgreeablenessC) ConscientiousnessD) Emotional stabilityE) Openness to experienceAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Conscientiousness is the Big Five trait most consistently related to job performance. Conscientiousness is as important for managers as for front-line employees.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.37) The ________ dimension of the Big Five Model addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty.A) agreeablenessB) conscientiousnessC) openness to experienceD) extraversionE) emotional stabilityAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the openness category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.38) Which of the following is not a trait of a narcissistic individual?A) fantasies of grand successB) a tendency toward being insensitiveC) a tendency to exploit situations and peopleD) a sense of entitlementE) a lack of empathyAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Narcissistic individuals are often hypersensitive and fragile people.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.39) Which of the following Big Five traits is most strongly related to life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and low stress levels?A) emotional stabilityB) extraversionC) openness to experienceD) agreeablenessE) conscientiousnessAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Of the Big Five traits, emotional stability is most strongly related to life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and low stress levels. This is probably true because high scorers are more likely to be positive and optimistic in their thinking and experience fewer negative emotions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.40) Which of the following traits is most likely to aid someone in becoming a leader?A) MachiavellianismB) NarcissismC) PsychopathyD) Type A PersonalityE) BenevolenceAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Narcissists are more likely to be chosen for leadership positions, and medium ratings of narcissism (neither extremely high nor extremely low) are positively correlated with leadership effectiveness.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.41) You are the manager of a small boutique. You have decided to apply the Big Five Model in order to understand your employees and their work habits because it is generally supported by an impressive body of research. You want to use the five dimensions of personality to match individuals with jobs to which they are well-suited. You know that your customers are demanding and sometimes difficult. So the salesperson should be able to withstand high levels of stress. Which personality dimension taps a person’s ability to withstand stress?A) extraversionB) openness to experienceC) conscientiousnessD) emotional stabilityE) agreeablenessAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The emotional stability dimension taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.42) Jane Simpson rates low on conscientiousness. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true about Jane?A) She will be easily distracted.B) She will be creative.C) She will be nervous, depressed, and insecure.D) She will perform better in jobs that require significant interpersonal interaction.E) She will be positive and optimistic.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.43) You wish to predict job satisfaction for each of your employees. Which of the five facets of personality will probably be of the most interest in this case?A) extraversion B) agreeableness C) conscientiousnessD) emotional stabilityE) openness to experienceAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) People who score high on emotional stability are happier than those who score low. Of the Big Five traits, emotional stability is most strongly related to life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and low stress levels.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.44) Ichabod is somewhat of a loner at the office. While he is fairly extroverted and fun to be around, he shows no interest in any of his coworkers and most of the time is indifferent to issues they may be experiencing. Which trait best describes Ichabod?A) antisocialB) borderlineC) schizotypalD) obsessive-compulsiveE) avoidantAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Antisocial people are indifferent and callous toward others. They use their extraversion to charm people, but they may be prone to violent CWBs and risky decision making.Diff: 2AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.45) Which of the following differentiates introverts from extraverts?A) As compared to extraverts, introverts tend to be happier in their jobs and in their lives as a whole.B) Introverts are more socially dominant than extraverts.C) Introverts experience more positive emotions than extraverts.D) Introverts are generally more assertive than extraverts.E) Introverts are less impulsive than extraverts. Answer:  EExplanation:  E) As compared to introverts, extraverts tend to be happier in their jobs and in their lives as a whole. Extraverts are more socially dominant than introverts. Extraverts experience more positive emotions than introverts. Extraverts are generally more assertive than introverts. Extraverts are more impulsive than introverts.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.46) A high Mach would be most suited for which of the following positions?A) a manager who leads a team of geographically distant consultantsB) a human resources manager who ensures staff firings do not place the company in legal jeopardyC) an ombudsman who investigates consumer complaints and mediates their outcomeD) an auditor who checks that all company accounts are kept properlyE) a real estate broker negotiating the lease of large amounts of office spaceAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) High Machs flourish (1) when they interact face to face with others rather than indirectly; (2) when the situation has a minimal number of rules and regulations, allowing latitude for improvisation; and (3) when emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning distracts low Machs.High Machs make good employees in jobs that require bargaining skills or that offer substantial rewards for winning (such as commissioned sales). The best job for them would be that of the broker negotiating the lease.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.47) During an annual review, Michel made the following assertion: “When I look at myself and my performance, I see that what I have achieved is outstanding and has, not surprisingly, won me the admiration and envy of most of my colleagues. I notice that everyone keeps talking about me; they are all just waiting to find out what triumph I will pull off next! In short, I don’t just deserve a raise, but need one, since without me, let’s face it, the place would simply fall apart.” Which of the following personality traits best describes Michel’s personality?A) Type A personalityB) external locus of controlC) high-self monitoringD) narcissisticE) high MachiavellianismAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Michel is a narcissist. Narcissism is the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.48) High Machs ________ than do low Machs.A) manipulate lessB) perform better in situations that have several rules and regulationsC) win lessD) are persuaded lessE) persuade others lessAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) High Machs manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more than do low Machs. High Machs perform better in situations that have a minimal number of rules and regulations, allowing latitude for improvisation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.49) Katrina was recently hired as a marketing intern at a successful PR firm. Katrina has green hair and shaved eyebrows and cannot seem to make deadlines because she cannot seem to remember when things are due. Which trait best describes Katrina?A) antisocialB) borderlineC) schizotypalD) obsessive-compulsiveE) avoidantAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Schizotypal individuals are eccentric and disorganized. In the workplace, they can be highly creative, although they are susceptible to work stress.Diff: 2AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.50) Varghese is a high level administrator at an organization. Consistently, he calls employees into his office to point out their mistakes and to inform them of flaws within their performance; however, he never praises his employees nor informs them of positive feedback. Varghese most likely has which of the Dark Triad?A) MachiavellianismB) narcissismC) psychopathyD) Machiavellianism and narcissismE) psychopathy and narcissismAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) While he may find himself better than others, Varghese is demonstrating psychopathy tendencies in his lack of concern for the job satisfaction and well being of his employees.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.51) Harvey is a very exciting person, people want to be friends with him, and find his company very desirable. Harvey usually takes the lead within his circle of friends and seldom considers what others want. Most likely, Harvey has which of the Dark Triad?A) MachiavellianismB) narcissismC) psychopathyD) Machiavellianism and narcissismE) psychopathy and narcissismAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Harvey is demonstrating both psychopathy, in his lack of concern for others and narcissism, in his charismatic and self-centered behavior.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.52) Why are agreeable people usually less successful in their careers?A) They aren’t happy in their lives.B) They aren’t liked by superiors.C) They don’t make many friends.D) They don’t negotiate well.E) They are prone to impulsive behavior.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) A downside of agreeableness is that it is associated with lower levels of career success (especially earnings). Agreeable individuals may be poorer negotiators; they are so concerned with pleasing others that they often don’t negotiate as much for themselves as they might.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.53) You are assembling a team to work on a long-term project which requires creativity, persistence, and formal thinking. The only piece of information available to you is the Myers-Briggs Type of each of the applicants. These results are shown below: Candidate Alan Brenda Cameron Drusilla Ellen Myers-Briggs Type INTJ ESTJ ENTP ESFP INFP You need to choose a lead person for the team. This person must be a visionary; combining an original mind with great drive. Who would be the best candidate based on their Myers-Briggs Type?A) AlanB) BrendaC) CameronD) DrusillaE) EllenAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Alan, as an INTJ, is the best candidate for the job. Introverted/Intuitive/Thinking/Judging people (INTJs) are visionaries. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. They are skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often stubborn.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.54) You are assembling a team to work on a long-term project which requires creativity, persistence, and formal thinking. The only piece of information available to you is the Myers-Briggs Type of each of the applicants. These results are shown below: Candidate Alan Brenda Cameron Drusilla Ellen Myers-Briggs Type INTJ ESTJ ENTP ESFP INFP You are looking for an organizer, a person who is realistic, logical, and analytical. Who would be the best candidate based on their Myers-Briggs Type?A) AlanB) BrendaC) CameronD) DrusillaE) EllenAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Brenda, as an ESTJ, is the best candidate for the job. ESTJs are organizers. They are realistic, logical, analytical, and decisive and have a natural head for business or mechanics. They like to organize and run activities.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.55) You are assembling a team to work on a long-term project which requires creativity, persistence, and formal thinking. The only piece of information available to you is the Myers-Briggs Type of each of the applicants. These results are shown below: Candidate Alan Brenda Cameron Drusilla Ellen Myers-Briggs Type INTJ ESTJ ENTP ESFP INFP You need a person who is innovative, individualistic, and versatile and is attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. Who would be the best candidate based on their Myers-Briggs Type?A) AlanB) BrendaC) CameronD) DrusillaE) EllenAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Cameron, as an ENTP, is the best candidate for the job. The ENTP type is a conceptualizer, innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.56) Which of the following personality traits indicates the degree to which a person is unemotional and pragmatic and believes that ends can justify means?A) core self-evaluationB) MachiavellianismC) Type A personalityD) self-monitoringE) narcissismAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Machiavellianism is the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.57) Individuals scoring ________ are highly sensitive to external cues and can behave differently in different situations.A) low on MachiavellianismB) high on narcissismC) low on agreeablenessD) high on self-monitoringE) high on conscientiousnessAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Self-monitoring refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. Individuals high in self-monitoring show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behavior to external situational factors. They are highly sensitive to external cues and can behave differently in different situations.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.58) According to the Big Five Model, a person who scores low on the openness to experience dimension tends to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  According to the Big Five Model, a person who scores low on the openness to experience dimension tends to be conventional and finds comfort in the familiar and a person scoring low on the dimension of emotional stability tends to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.59) Generally, agreeableness is associated with higher levels of career success (especially earnings).Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Generally, agreeableness is associated with lower levels of career success (especially earnings). Agreeable individuals tend to be poorer negotiators; they are so concerned with pleasing others that they often don’t negotiate as much for themselves as they might.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.60) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the “feeling” type are flexible and spontaneous.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the “feeling” type rely on their personal values and emotions. People belonging to the “perceiving” types are flexible and spontaneous.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.61) The openness to experience dimension of the Big Five Model captures our comfort level with relationships.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  The openness to experience dimension of the Big Five Model addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. The extraversion dimension captures our comfort level with relationships.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.62) Janet keeps emotional distance from her coworkers and believes that the ends can justify the means. Janet would rate high in Machiavellianism.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes ends can justify means. “If it works, use it” is consistent with a high-Mach perspective.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.63) High Machs perform better when they interact face to face with others rather than indirectly.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  High Machs perform better when they interact face to face with others rather than indirectly.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.64) What are the various categories in which the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classifies people?Answer:  The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is the most widely used personality assessment instrument in the world. It is a 100-question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. On the basis of their answers, individuals are classified as extraverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving (J or P). These terms are defined as follows:a)
Extraverted (E) versus Introverted (I): Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy.b)
Sensing (S) versus Intuitive (N): Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture.”c)
Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F): Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions.d)
Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P): Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.65) Describe conscientiousness and explain how it can predict behavior at work.Answer:  The Big Five conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable. Employees who score higher in conscientiousness develop higher levels of job knowledge, probably because highly conscientious people learn more. Higher levels of job knowledge contribute to higher levels of job performance. Conscientiousness is important for managers and for front-line employees. Conscientiousness, in the form of persistence, attention to detail, and setting of high standards, is considered more important than any other personality trait for job performance. Conscientiousness is important for organizational success. Conscientiousness is the Big Five trait most consistently related to job performance.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.66) Briefly describe the five key traits in the Big Five personality model.Answer:  The five key traits in the Big Five personality model are:a) Extraversion: The extraversion dimension captures our comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet.b) Agreeableness: The agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.c) Conscientiousness: The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.d) Emotional stability: The emotional stability dimension—often labeled by its converse, neuroticism—taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.e) Openness to experience: The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the openness category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar. Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.67) Describe the Big Five personality dimension of emotional stability and explain how it can predict behavior at work.Answer:  The emotional stability dimension, often labeled by its converse, neuroticism, taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.People who score high on emotional stability are happier than those who score low. Of the Big Five traits, emotional stability is most strongly related to life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and low stress levels. This is probably true because high scorers are more likely to be positive and optimistic in their thinking and experience fewer negative emotions. People low on emotional stability are hypervigilant (looking for problems or impending signs of danger) and are especially vulnerable to the physical and psychological effects of stress. In the workplace, emotionally stable employees offer less negative thinking and fewer negative emotions. They are less hypervigilant.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.68) Compare the characteristics of extraverts with those of introverts.Answer:  Extraverts tend to be happier in their jobs and in their lives as a whole. They experience more positive emotions than do introverts, and they more freely express these feelings. They also tend to perform better in jobs that require significant interpersonal interaction, perhaps because they have more social skills—they usually have more friends and spend more time in social situations than introverts. Finally, extraversion is a relatively strong predictor of leadership emergence in groups; extraverts are more socially dominant, “take charge” sorts of people, and they are generally more assertive than introverts. One downside of extraversion is that extraverts are more impulsive than introverts; they are more likely to be absent from work and engage in risky behavior such as unprotected sex, drinking, and other impulsive or sensation-seeking acts.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.69) Describe the personality characteristic of Machiavellianism.Answer:  The personality characteristic of Machiavellianism (often abbreviated Mach) is named after Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote in the sixteenth century on how to gain and use power. An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes ends can justify means. “If it works, use it” is consistent with a high-Mach perspective. A considerable amount of research has related high- and low-Mach personalities to behavioral outcomes. High Machs manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more than do low Machs. Yet high-Mach outcomes are moderated by situational factors. High Machs flourish (1) when they interact face to face with others rather than indirectly; (2) when the situation has a minimal number of rules and regulations, allowing latitude for improvisation; and (3) when emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning distracts low Machs. Thus, whether high Machs make good employees depends on the type of job. In jobs that require bargaining skills (such as labor negotiation) or that offer substantial rewards for winning (such as commissioned sales), high Machs will be productive. But if ends can’t justify the means, there are absolute standards of behavior, or the three situational factors we noted are not in evidence, our ability to predict a high Mach’s performance will be severely curtailed.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.2 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework and the Big Five model.70) Which of the following terms indicates the degree to which people like or dislike themselves?A) core self-evaluationB) authoritarianismC) self-monitoringD) MachiavellianismE) agreeablenessAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) People who have positive core self-evaluations like themselves and see themselves as effective, capable, and in control of their environment. Those with negative core self-evaluations tend to dislike themselves, question their capabilities, and view themselves as powerless over their environment.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.3 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.71) Which of the following statements is true about people with positive core self-evaluations?A) They set ambitious goals.B) They lack persistence.C) They tend to question their capabilities.D) They view themselves as powerless over their environment.E) They are less popular coworkers than those with negative core self-evaluation.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) People with positive core self-evaluation see more challenge in their job and attain more complex jobs. They also set more ambitious goals, are more committed to their goals, and persist longer in attempting to reach these goals. They are more popular coworkers than those with negative core self-evaluation.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.3 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.72) Individuals high in self-monitoring ________.A) show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behavior to external situational factorsB) are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe ends can justify meansC) have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and are arrogantD) are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliableE) tend to dislike themselves and view themselves as powerless over their environmentAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Self-monitoring refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. Individuals high in self-monitoring show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behavior to external situational factors.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.3 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.73) As compared to high self-monitors, low self-monitors ________.A) tend to be more mobile in their careersB) pay closer attention to the behavior of othersC) receive better performance ratingsD) are less likely to emerge as leadersE) show less commitment to their organizationsAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Evidence indicates high self-monitors pay closer attention to the behavior of others and are more capable of conforming than are low self-monitors. They also receive better performance ratings, are more likely to emerge as leaders, and show less commitment to their organizations. High self-monitoring managers tend to be more mobile in their careers.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.3 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.74) Which of the following statements best describes the traits of people having a proactive personality?A) They identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs.B) They naturally seem to think about other people a lot, being concerned about their well-being and feelings.C) They make more rapid decisions and use less information than the low risk takers do.D) They tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation and express behavioral inconsistency.E) They are more charismatic and thus are more likely to emerge as leaders and display better psychological health.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) Those with a proactive personality identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs, compared to others who passively react to situations. Proactives create positive change in their environment, regardless of, or even in spite of, constraints or obstacles.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.3 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.75) Which of the following is highly beneficial to a proactive person?A) Strong oversight from their managerB) Opportunities for deep level actingC) Good structure in their daily activitiesD) Ability to tailor their jobs to their strengthsE) Working within a teamAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Proactive people are receptive to changes in job demands and thrive when they can informally tailor their jobs to their strengths. They are best working a team only if there is an open exchange of ideas.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.3 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.76) Those with a ________ personality identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs, compared to others who passively react to situations.A) high self-monitoringB) proactiveC) high MachD) low other-orientationE) narcissistAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Those with a proactive personality identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs, compared to others who passively react to situations.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.3 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.77) High self-monitoring managers are less likely to occupy central positions in an organization than low self-monitoring managers.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  High self-monitoring managers are more likely to occupy central positions in an organization than low self-monitoring managers.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.3 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.78) High self-monitors tend to pay less attention to the behavior of other people than do low self-monitors.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  High self-monitors pay closer attention to the behavior of others than low self-monitors.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.3 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.79) Explain the effect of core self-evaluation on job performance.Answer:  People who have positive core self-evaluations like themselves and see themselves as effective, capable, and in control of their environment. Those with negative core self-evaluations tend to dislike themselves, question their capabilities, and view themselves as powerless over their environment.Core self-evaluations relate to job satisfaction because people positive on this trait see more challenge in their job and actually attain more complex jobs. People with positive core self-evaluations perform better than others because they set more ambitious goals, are more committed to their goals, and persist longer in attempting to reach these goals. Such people also provide better customer service, are more popular coworkers, and have careers that both begin on better footing and ascend more rapidly over time.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.3 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.80) Describe the personality trait of self-monitoring.Answer:  Self-monitoring refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. Individuals high in self-monitoring show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behavior to external situational factors. They are highly sensitive to external cues and can behave differently in different situations. High self-monitors are capable of presenting striking contradictions between their public persona and their private self. Low self-monitors tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation; hence, there is high behavioral consistency between who they are and what they do.Evidence indicates high self-monitors pay closer attention to the behavior of others and are more capable of conforming than are low self-monitors. They also receive better performance ratings, are more likely to emerge as leaders, and show less commitment to their organizations. In addition, high self-monitoring managers tend to be more mobile in their careers, receive more promotions (both internal and cross-organizational), and are more likely to occupy central positions in an organization.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.3 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.81) Which of the following is not indicative of situational strength?A) clarityB) consistencyC) constraintsD) comprehensionE) consequencesAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Comprehension may be an overreaching idea but it is not one of the four elements of situational strength.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.4 Describe how the situation affects whether personality predicts behavior.82) Lydia works as a 911 operator. Her job strength is dictated most likely by ________.A) clarityB) consistencyC) constraintsD) comprehensionE) consequencesAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Serving as a 911 operator, her job role is most likely very prescribed thus having a strong job strength.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  5.4 Describe how the situation affects whether personality predicts behavior.83) Merry is normally a very quiet person who remains somewhat quiet during conversations and social settings. Merry is also the reigning national debate club champion. According to the Trait Activation Theory, what happens to Merry at competitions?A) She becomes highly narcissistic and is rude to the other competitors.B) Being at the competition causes Merry to draw on normally unused traits.C) Merry stops pretending to be shy.D) Being at the competition causes Merry to internalize.E) Merry wins by not saying much.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) According to the theory, certain situations cause one to “activate” certain personality traits. In this case, the normally shy Merry has extroversion traits activated for the competition.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  5.4 Describe how the situation affects whether personality predicts behavior.84) Joe, a paramedic, is a very self-directed person and does not need step-by-step instructions in his work. According to the idea of situational strength, if Joe’s supervisor gives him detailed instructions on how to bandage a broken finger, Joe will perceive this as ________.A) his manager being concerned for his well beingB) his manager being neurotic and narcissisticC) his manager using good quality controlD) his manager not having enough to do with her own timeE) his manager not having faith in his abilitiesAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) A person who is usually self-directed may view step-by-step instructions (high clarity) for a simple task as a lack of faith in his ability.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.4 Describe how the situation affects whether personality predicts behavior.85) Which of the following terms describes basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct?”A) valuesB) attitudesC) affectsD) customsE) traditionsAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. Values contain a judgmental element in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.5 Contrast terminal and instrumental values.86) When we rank an individual’s values in order of their ________, we obtain the person’s value system.A) intensityB) contentC) contextD) social acceptanceE) social needsAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) A value system is defined as a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.5 Contrast terminal and instrumental values.87) Which of the following statements is not true regarding values?A) They are partly determined by our genetically transmitted traits.B) They tend to be relatively stable and enduring.C) They have both content and intensity attributes.D) They carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable.E) There is no substantial variability in values across cultures.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Values do appear to vary across cultures, meaning that, on average, people’s values in one nation tend to differ from those in another.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.5 Contrast terminal and instrumental values.88) Researchers have used labels such as Baby Boomers, Generation Xers, and Millennials to describe different cohorts in the U.S. workforce. While these categories are helpful, they represent ________, not the ________ of individuals.A) groups; personalitiesB) personalities; trendsC) trends; beliefsD) beliefs; valuesE) values; groupsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) These labels are more representative of the times in which these people live and work but are not a reflection of the beliefs of their society.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.5 Contrast terminal and instrumental values.89) Values tend to be stable and enduring.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Values are not flexible and they tend to be relatively stable and enduring. A significant portion of the values we hold is established in our early years, by parents, teachers, friends, and others.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.5 Contrast terminal and instrumental values.90) What are values?Answer:  Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.” They contain a judgmental element in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable. Values have both content and intensity attributes. The content attribute says a mode of conduct or end-state of existence is important. The intensity attribute specifies how important it is. When we rank an individual’s values in terms of their intensity, we obtain that person’s value system.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.5 Contrast terminal and instrumental values.91) You have decided to use Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations to help your friends recognize which jobs they would be well-suited for. Monica is shy, stable, and persistent. Neil is ambitious and energetic and likes to dominate conversations. Jessica is idealistic, impractical, and very imaginative. Walter is efficient and practical, but he lacks imagination and tends to be inflexible. Chris is analytical, independent, and an original thinker. According to Holland’s Typology, Monica’s personality type is “________.”A) investigativeB) socialC) realisticD) artisticE) enterprisingAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) According to Holland’s Typology individuals belonging to the realistic type are shy, genuine, persistent, stable, conforming, and practical.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.92) You have decided to use Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations to help your friends recognize which jobs they would be well-suited for. Monica is shy, stable, and persistent. Neil is ambitious and energetic and likes to dominate conversations. Jessica is idealistic, impractical, and very imaginative. Walter is efficient and practical, but he lacks imagination and tends to be inflexible. Chris is analytical, independent, and an original thinker. Which of your friends is best suited to being an accountant?A) WalterB) NeilC) JessicaD) MonicaE) ChrisAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Walter is efficient and practical, but he lacks imagination and tends to be inflexible. He has a conventional personality and would probably prefer rule-regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activities such as accounting.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.93) You have decided to use Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations to help your friends recognize which jobs they would be well-suited for. Monica is shy, stable, and persistent. Neil is ambitious and energetic and likes to dominate conversations. Jessica is idealistic, impractical, and very imaginative. Walter is efficient and practical, but he lacks imagination and tends to be inflexible. Chris is analytical, independent, and an original thinker. Which of your friends is most likely to find a successful career as a writer?A) WalterB) NeilC) JessicaD) MonicaE) ChrisAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Jessica is idealistic, impractical, and very imaginative. She has an artistic personality and would prefer ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression such as writing.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.94) You have decided to use Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations to help your friends recognize which jobs they would be well-suited for. Monica is shy, stable, and persistent. Neil is ambitious and energetic and likes to dominate conversations. Jessica is idealistic, impractical, and very imaginative. Walter is efficient and practical, but he lacks imagination and tends to be inflexible. Chris is analytical, independent, and an original thinker. Who might be well-suited to being a lawyer?A) WalterB) NeilC) JessicaD) MonicaE) ChrisAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Neil is ambitious and energetic and likes to dominate conversations. He has an enterprising personality and would prefer verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.95) John Holland’s personality-job fit theory presents six personality types. Which of the following is one of these six types?A) analyticB) imaginativeC) practicalD) investigativeE) intuitiveAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) John Holland’s personality-job fit theory presents six personality types. These types are realistic, investigative, social, conventional, enterprising, and artistic.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.96) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the “realistic” type will be most suitable for the job of a(n) ________.A) painterB) accountantC) mechanicD) lawyerE) biologistAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Realistic personalities prefer physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordination. They thrive in jobs such as mechanics, drill press operators, assembly-line workers, and farmers.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.97) You are seeking to fill the position of corporate accountant, and have administered Holland’s Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire to all candidates. The best candidates for the position would have which of the following personality types?A) conventionalB) realisticC) enterprisingD) investigativeE) socialAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Conventional personalities prefer rule-regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activities. Careers for conventional personalities include: accountant, corporate manager, bank teller, and file clerk.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.98) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the “investigative” type tend to be ________.A) imaginative, disorderly, and idealisticB) shy, genuine, and persistentC) sociable, friendly, and cooperativeD) analytical, curious, and independentE) conforming, efficient, and practicalAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the “investigative” type tend to be analytical, curious, and independent.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.99) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the ________ type prefer verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain powers.A) realisticB) conventionalC) artisticD) enterprisingE) investigativeAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the enterprising type prefer verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain powers.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.100) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the “enterprising” type prefer ________.A) activities that involve helping othersB) activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understandingC) physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordinationD) ambiguous and imaginative activities that allow creative expressionE) activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain powerAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the “enterprising” type prefer activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.101) The computer age has greatly increased the way companies portray themselves online. Which theory best explains why this is?A) person-job fitB) Dark TriadC) work-life balanceD) person-organization fitE) Big-Five PersonalityAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Because applicants have such easy access to company information, it is important that companies be honest and candid online so that applicants can make good pre-employment decisions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.102) Which of the following is not particularly effective for predicting workplace outcomes?A) person-job fitB) person-organization fitC) person-group fitD) person-supervisor fitE) person-personality fitAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) There is no such theory as person-personality fit.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.103) In collective cultures, person-job fit is a weaker predictor of job satisfaction because people are respected by their managers.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  In collective cultures, person-job fit is a weaker predictor of job satisfaction because people do not expect to have jobs tailored to them, so they value person-job fit efforts less.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.104) According to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, individuals belonging to the “realistic” type prefer rule-regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activities.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  According to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, individuals belonging to the “realistic” type prefer physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordination.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.105) Discuss John Holland’s personality-job fit theory.Answer:  The effort to match job requirements with personality characteristics is best articulated in John Holland’s personality-job fit theory. Holland presents six personality types and proposes that satisfaction and the propensity to leave a position depend on how well individuals match their personalities to a job. Holland developed the Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire, which contains 160 occupational titles. Respondents indicate which they like or dislike, and their answers form personality profiles.The personality-job fit theory describes six personality types. These types are:a) Realistic: Prefers physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordinationb) Investigative: Prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understandingc) Social: Prefers activities that involve helping and developing othersd) Conventional: Prefers rule-regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activitiese) Enterprising: Prefers verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain powerf) Artistic: Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expressionThe key points of this model are that (1) there do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals, (2) there are different types of jobs, and (3) people in jobs congruent with their personality should be more satisfied and less likely to voluntarily resign than people in incongruent jobs.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.6 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.106) Which of the following is not one of Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture?A) power distanceB) flexibility versus rigidityC) individualism versus collectivismD) long-term versus short-term orientationE) uncertainty avoidanceAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture are power distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term versus short-term orientation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.7 Compare Hofstede’s five value dimensions and the GLOBE framework.107) With reference to the Hofstede’s framework, a class or caste system that discourages upward mobility is more likely to exist in a nation that scores ________.A) high on individualismB) low on masculinityC) high on power distanceD) low on uncertainty avoidanceE) high on long-term orientationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Power distance describes the degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. A high rating on power distance means that large inequalities of power and wealth exist and are tolerated in the culture, as in a class or caste system that discourages upward mobility.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.7 Compare Hofstede’s five value dimensions and the GLOBE framework.108) With reference to the Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures, ________ emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.A) uncertainty avoidanceB) long-term orientationC) masculinityD) collectivismE) power distanceAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Collectivism emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.7 Compare Hofstede’s five value dimensions and the GLOBE framework.109) According to the Hofstede’s framework, ________ indicates the degree to which people in a country prefer structured to unstructured situations.A) collectivismB) power distanceC) long-term orientationD) uncertainty avoidanceE) individualismAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations defines their uncertainty avoidance. Cultures low on uncertainty avoidance are more accepting of ambiguity, are less rule oriented, take more risks, and more readily accept change.Diff: 1AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.7 Compare Hofstede’s five value dimensions and the GLOBE framework.110) People in cultures with long-term orientation ________.A) are less rule oriented, take more risks, and more readily accept changeB) look to the future and value thrift, persistence, and traditionC) treat women as the equals of men in all respectsD) emphasize a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect themE) tolerate large inequalities of power and wealthAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) People in a culture with long-term orientation look to the future and value thrift, persistence, and tradition. In a short-term orientation, people value the here and now; they accept change more readily and don’t see commitments as impediments to change.Diff: 1AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.7 Compare Hofstede’s five value dimensions and the GLOBE framework.111) Which of the following cultural dimensions identified by GLOBE does nothave an equivalent in Hofstede?A) future orientationB) power distanceC) performance orientationD) individualism/collectivismE) gender differentiationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The main difference between the GLOBE framework and Hofstede’s work is that GLOBE added dimensions, such as humane orientation (the degree to which a society rewards individuals for being altruistic, generous, and kind to others) and performance orientation (the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence).Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.7 Compare Hofstede’s five value dimensions and the GLOBE framework.112) Begun in 1993, the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) research program is an ongoing cross-cultural investigation of leadership and national culture. Using data from 825 organizations in 62 countries, the GLOBE team identified ________ dimensions on which national cultures differ.A) 5B) 9C) 15D) 20E) 50Answer:  BExplanation:  B) The GLOBE framework identified 9 dimensions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.7 Compare Hofstede’s five value dimensions and the GLOBE framework.113) According to the Hofstede’s framework, individualism describes the degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  According to the Hofstede’s framework, power distance describes the degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.7 Compare Hofstede’s five value dimensions and the GLOBE framework.114) Describe the five value dimensions of national culture as identified by the Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultures.Answer:  The five value dimensions of national culture as identified by the Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultures are:a) Power distance is the degree to which people accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.b) Individualism versus collectivism: Individualism is the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups and believe in individual rights above all else. Collectivism emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.c) Masculinity versus femininity: Hofstede’s construct of masculinity is the degree to which the culture favors traditional masculine roles such as achievement, power, and control, as opposed to viewing men and women as equals. A high femininity rating means the culture sees little differentiation between male and female roles and treats women as the equals of men in all respects.d) Uncertainty avoidance: The degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations defines their uncertainty avoidance.e) Long-term versus short-term orientation: People in a culture with long-term orientation look to the future and value thrift, persistence, and tradition. In a short-term orientation, people value the here and now; they accept change more readily and don’t see commitments as impediments to change.Diff: 3AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.7 Compare Hofstede’s five value dimensions and the GLOBE framework.115) What is the main difference between Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the GLOBE framework?Answer:  The main difference between Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the GLOBE framework is that the GLOBE framework added dimensions, such as humane orientation (the degree to which a society rewards individuals for being altruistic, generous, and kind to others) and performance orientation (the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence).Diff: 3AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  5.7 Compare Hofstede’s five value dimensions and the GLOBE framework.