Chapter04

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge)Chapter 4
Emotions and Moods1) Which of the following is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience?A) affectB) emotionsC) moodsD) emotional laborE) cognitionAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Affect is defined as a broad range of feelings that people experience, and it encompasses both moods and emotions. Emotions are intense feelings directed at someone or something. Moods are less intense feelings than emotions and often (though not always) lack a contextual stimulus.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.2) Which of the following statements is true regarding emotions?A) Emotions are caused by specific events.B) Emotions last longer than moods.C) Moods are more action oriented in nature than emotions.D) Emotions are generally not indicated by distinct facial expressions.E) Emotions are less intense feelings than moods.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) Emotions are caused by specific events. Moods last longer than emotions. Emotions are usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions. Moods are less intense feelings than emotions. Emotions are more action oriented in nature than moods.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.3) Kathryn expresses her anger against her supervisor for denying her a well-deserved promotion. Which of the following terms best describes the intense feelings that she directs at him?A) affectB) cognitionC) moodsD) emotional laborE) emotionsAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Emotions are reactions to a person (seeing a friend at work may make you feel glad) or an event (dealing with a rude client may make you feel angry).Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.4) Which of the following terms best describes feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions?A) affectB) cognitionC) moodsD) thoughtsE) reactionsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Moods are feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. Moods aren’t usually directed at a person or an event. Moods may be more cognitive, meaning they may cause us to think or brood for a while.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.5) Julia works as a receptionist in a real estate company. One morning her boss comes in the door and yells at her, telling her that the front office is a mess and that she needs to get up and clean it immediately. After her boss leaves the room, Julia grabs three magazines and violently slams them into the trash can. Which of the following best describes Julia’s anger?A) an affectB) a thoughtC) a moodD) an emotionE) a mental processAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Julia is experiencing the intense feeling of anger, which is an emotion directed toward her boss. Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something and are more likely to be caused by a specific event.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.6) Erin works at a software company, in charge of the help desk. After being yelled at by a customer about the state of her company’s software, she becomes angry, and has to take a short break to calm down. What makes her anger an emotion, rather than a mood?A) It is a simple, unambiguous feeling.B) Her response is prolonged.C) It has a contextual stimulus.D) Her response is not accompanied by facial expressions.E) It is cognitive in nature.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Erin’s feelings are brought on by being yelled at, which is a contextual stimulus. Her response is short, rather than prolonged. These are both characteristics of emotion.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.7) When the team he supports wins the World Cup, Robert feels a surge of joy, which turns into a feeling of satisfaction that lasts for days. What is one of the reasons that the feeling of satisfaction might be categorized as a mood and not an emotion?A) It is a very strong feeling.B) It is brought about by a specific event.C) It has a lengthy duration.D) It is a positive feeling.E) It is expressed on his face.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Robert’s general ambiguous feeling of happiness is ongoing or prolonged, which is a characteristic of mood. Contextual stimulus, strong feelings, and facial expression are characteristics of emotion. Both mood and emotion can be positive.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.8) When Ariana is told that her dog has been killed by a car, her eyes widen in disbelief and tears begin to stream down her face. Later that day she is able to laugh and talk about the fun times she had with her dog. What is one of the reasons that Ariana’s reaction can be categorized as an emotion?A) It is a general, unambiguous feeling.B) It is accompanied by facial expressions.C) It has a lengthy duration.D) It is a positive feeling.E) Her reaction is cognitive in nature.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) Ariana’s shock and crying are visible on her face, a characteristic of emotion. Most experts believe emotions are more fleeting than moods, which is why Ariana is able to laugh and talk about the fun times she had with her dog later that day.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.9) Which of the following statements is true regarding moods?A) Moods are more intense feelings than emotions.B) Moods don’t last longer than emotions.C) Moods are more action oriented in nature, as compared to emotions.D) Moods are less cognitive in nature than emotions.E) Moods are generally not indicated by distinct facial expressions.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Moods are generally not indicated by distinct facial expressions. Moods are less intense feelings than emotions and last longer than emotions. Emotions are more action oriented in nature and moods are more cognitive in nature.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.10) ________ is an emotion that falls into the category of high positive affect.A) SerenityB) ElationC) FatigueD) BoredomE) RelaxationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Positive affect is a mood dimension consisting of positive emotions such as excitement, elation, self-assurance, and cheerfulness at the high end and boredom, sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.11) Research finds that when nothing in particular is happening, called positivity offset, most individuals experience ________.A) an intensely positive moodB) a mildly positive moodC) a neutral moodD) a mildly negative moodE) an intensely negative moodAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Research finds a positivity offset, meaning that at zero input (when nothing in particular is going on), most individuals experience a mildly positive mood. This appears to be true for employees in a wide range of job settings.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.12) ________ is a pure marker of low positive affect.A) StressB) RelaxationC) BoredomD) TranquilityE) AnxietyAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Negative affect is a mood dimension consisting of nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end and relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the low end. Boredom is a pure marker of low positive affect.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.13) Negative affect is a mood dimension consisting of ________ at the low end.A) nervousnessB) relaxationC) anxietyD) stressE) depressionAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Negative affect is a mood dimension consisting of nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end and relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the low end.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.14) A ________ means that when nothing is going on, people are generally in a mildly good mood.A) low positive affectB) positivity offsetC) high positive affectD) residual positivityE) high negative affectAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) A positivity offset means that at zero input most individuals experience a mildly positive mood. For most people, positive moods are somewhat more common than negative moods.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.15) ________ is a pure marker of high positive affect.A) ExcitedB) SereneC) NervousD) RelaxedE) BoredAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) When we group emotions into positive and negative categories, they become mood states because we are now looking at them more generally instead of isolating one particular emotion. Excited is a pure marker of high positive affect.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.16) Positive affect is a mood dimension consisting of ________ at the low end.A) excitementB) stressC) nervousnessD) tranquilityE) boredomAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) We can think of positive affect as a mood dimension consisting of positive emotions such as excitement, self-assurance, and cheerfulness at the high end and boredom, sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.17) Which of the following mood dimensions is a pure marker of high negative affect?A) depressionB) stressC) fatigueD) boredomE) nervousnessAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) When we group emotions into positive and negative categories, they become mood states because we are now looking at them more generally instead of isolating one particular emotion. Nervousness is a pure marker of high negative affect.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.18) What is positivity offset?A) having misperceptions of one’s environment B) experiencing self-elationC) experiencing the fundamental attribution errorD) exhibiting a self-serving bias when there is negative input E) experiencing a mildly positive mood at zero input Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Positivity offset is defined as the tendency of most individuals to experience a mildly positive mood at zero input (when nothing in particular is going on). Positivity offset does not have anything to do with misperceptions, biases, or errors. Positivity offset is mild positivity, not elation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.19) Which of the following statements is true regarding the degree to which people experience emotions across cultures?A) The degree to which people experience emotions is independent of culture.B) People in China report experiencing fewer positive and negative emotions as compared to people in other cultures.C) Western cultures experience more negative emotions and fewer positive emotions than Eastern cultures.D) The emotions experienced by people in China are more intense as compared to emotions experienced by people in other cultures.E) Eastern cultures like China view emotions like pride more positively than Western individualistic cultures such as the United States.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) The degree to which people experience emotions varies across cultures. In China, people report experiencing fewer positive and negative emotions than people in other cultures, and the emotions they experience are less intense. Pride is generally a positive emotion in Western individualistic cultures such as the United States, but Eastern cultures like China view pride as undesirable.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.20) A researcher finds that people who work in a fish processing plant, doing work that most people find extremely unpleasant, still have a positive mood about 60 percent of the time. Which of the following concepts can explain such a finding?A) bandwagon effectB) framing effectC) the fundamental attribution errorD) self-serving biasE) positivity offsetAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) The people in the plant are generally happy and positive which is the definition of positivity offset, or the tendency of most individuals to experience a mildly positive mood at zero input (when nothing in particular is going on).Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.21) Emotions are ________.A) independent of the personality of individualsB) strongly affected by weatherC) less intense as compared to moodsD) less likely to be caused by a specific event than moodsE) critical to rational thinkingAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Emotions are critical to rational thinking. We must have the ability to experience emotions to be rational. Why? Because our emotions provide important information about how we understand the world around us.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.22) Of the ways in which we express emotions, ________ has/have proven to be the most difficult to interpret.A) body languageB) facial expressionsC) wordsD) emotionsE) vocalizationsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Emotions are too complex to be represented on faces.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.23) The way we ________ an emotion is not always the same as the way we ________.A) experience; show itB) experience; interpret itC) show; interpret itD) show; trust itE) trust; experience itAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) For example, people in the Middle East and the United States recognize a smile as indicating happiness, but in the Middle East a smile is also often interpreted as a sign of sexual attraction, so women have learned not to smile at men.Diff: 1AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.24) You are at the office and one of your coworkers, who you only know casually, makes eye contact with you, stares you down, and dashes past you. Assuming you are in the Japan, what is your likely reaction?A) You ignore the man…he means nothing to youB) You ignore the man….he is obviously crazyC) You become alarmed…he is obviously crazyD) You become alarmed…you might have somehow offended himE) You become angry…he should have said helloAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) In collectivistic countries, such as Japan, China, and South Africa, people tend to think that the display of emotions from others has something to do with them.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.25) You are at the office and one of your coworkers, who you only know casually, makes eye contact with you, stares you down, and dashes past you. Assuming you are in the United States, what is your likely reaction?A) You ignore the man…he means nothing to youB) You ignore the man….he is obviously crazyC) You become alarmed…he is obviously crazyD) You become alarmed…you might have somehow offended himE) You become angry…he should have said helloAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) In individualistic countries, such as The United States, Canada, and Germany, individuals tend not to think that others emotions are directed at them.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.26) Moral emotions are those emotions that have moral implications because of our ________.A) religious beliefsB) interpersonal relationshipsC) individualistic cultureD) instant judgment of the situation that evokes themE) guilt caused by our societyAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Moral emotions include sympathy for the suffering of others, guilt about our own immoral behavior, anger about injustice done to others, and contempt for those who behave unethically.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.27) When you experience moral disgust, you have most likely been offended due to your sense of ________.A) right and wrongB) good and badC) truth and justiceD) religion and societyE) self and othersAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Our sense of right and wrong create our moral judgments on situations.Diff: 1AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.28) Research has shown that there is a link between our emotions and our ability to be ________.A) successfulB) rationalC) professionalD) a mentorE) healthyAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Because our emotions provide a context for how we understand the world around us. For instance, a recent study indicated that individuals in a negative mood are better able to discern truthful information than people in a happy mood.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.29) As the manager of a successful accounting firm, you know that from January to April, your employees often feel great amounts of stress. One of your employees, Syddarth, returned from lunch 30 minutes late and it appeared to you that he had been crying. It is important in this situation that you ________.A) get Syddarth some help because he clearly has mental issuesB) fire Syddarth because he seems to not be able to handle the pressureC) assure Syddarth that you understand how he is feeling and that things are stressfulD) tell Syddarth about how stressed you are to make him feel betterE) ignore Syddarth because everyone needs to deal with their own issuesAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) It is important to acknowledge the effects that emotions and moods have on individuals and to not discount emotional responses as irrational or invalid.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.30) Moods are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Emotions are defined as intense feelings that are directed at someone or something, while moods are feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and often lack a contextual stimulus.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.31) Moods are more action oriented in nature than emotions.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Emotions are more action oriented in nature than moods. Moods tend to be cognitive in nature.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.32) Some countries, such as Japan and Russia, embrace negative emotions. What has been found to be a result of this focus on negative emotions?Answer:  In countries which focus on, or at least embrace, negative emotions, the occurrence of negative emotions has been found to be less detrimental to the health of the population than for individuals from countries such as the United States or Brazil, who focus on having positive emotions. In essence, being able to deal with negative emotions makes one more resistant to their potentially negative health effects.Diff: 3AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.33) Explain the differences between the following terms: affect, emotions, and moods.Answer:  Affect is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience. It’s an umbrella concept that encompasses both emotions and moods. Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Finally, moods are feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and which lack a contextual stimulus.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.34) Jack’s department has three employees that are Chinese nationals. Keeping in mind that in China, negative emotions are viewed positively and pride is viewed negatively, how might Jack need to change his leadership and motivation methods with these three employees?Answer:  With his three Chinese employees Jack would probably benefit from a more serious, stern, respectful attitude, rather than a smiling, friendly, and positive attitude. Many motivational tools, such as small public recognition awards, would be embarrassing or even insulting for the Chinese employees, as they consider pride to be negative. Jack would benefit by rewarding them privately, or with small bonuses or lunches out.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical Thinking; Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  SynthesisLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.35) You and your friends are attending a basketball game at your college. A player on your school’s team has a foul called on her for slapping to which you and your friends booed the referee. Seconds later, a player on the opposing team is called for the same foul for which you cheered. Why did you act in this seemingly hypocritical manner?Answer:  We tend to judge outgroup members (anyone who is not in our group) more harshly for moral transgressions than ingroup members, even when we are trying to be objective. In addition, perhaps to restore an emotional sense of fair play, we are likely to spitefully want outgroup members to be punished.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  4.1 Differentiate between emotions and moods.36) People feeling different emotions after being subjected to identical emotion-provoking stimuli is a result of ________.A) cognitive dissonanceB) positivity offsetC) emotional dissonanceD) emotional laborE) personalityAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Because of personality, most people have built-in tendencies to experience certain moods and emotions more frequently than others do, therefore giving different responses. The intensity with which a person experiences the emotion is based on personality.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.37) Which of the following is the term used for the strength with which individuals experience emotion?A) emotional dissonanceB) affect intensityC) emotional laborD) positivity offsetE) emotional intelligenceAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Affect intensity is defined as the individual differences in the strength with which individuals experience their emotions. Affectively intense people experience both positive and negative emotions more deeply: when they’re sad, they’re really sad, and when they’re happy, they’re really happy.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.38) Research has indicated that people in a ________ mood are better able to ________.A) good; deal with othersB) good; discern the truth about othersC) bland; discern the truth about othersD) bad; discern the truth about othersE) bad; deal with othersAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Individuals in a negative mood are better able to discern truthful information than are people in a positive mood.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.39) Lowest negative effect is ________ in the morning and tends to ________ over the course of the day and evening.A) highest; decreaseB) highest; remain consistentC) stable; increaseD) lowest; increaseE) lowest; remain consistentAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Research shows that negative affect is lowest in the morning and tends to increase over the course of the day and evening.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.40) When situations are overly emotionally charged and stressful, we have a natural response to ________.A) seek vengeanceB) find positive outlets for our emotionsC) find negative outlets for our emotionsD) disengage and just look awayE) disengage and exhibit counterproductive work behaviorsAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Stress takes a natural toll on our moods and when situations become too emotionally charged, our natural response is to remove ourselves from the situation.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.41) Ben is prone to experiencing emotions in a much stronger manner than most other people. Events that don’t provoke any significant emotional response in the average person often send him into fits of happiness, anger, or depression. Ben has a high level of ________.A) emotional dissonanceB) negative affectC) emotional intelligenceD) positive affectE) affect intensityAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Affect intensity is defined as the individual differences in the strength with which individuals experience their emotions. Affectively intense people experience both positive and negative emotions more deeply: when they’re sad, they’re really sad, and when they’re happy, they’re really happy.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.42) On which day of the week does negative affect tend to be the highest?A) SundaysB) MondaysC) TuesdaysD) WednesdaysE) ThursdaysAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Evidence shows that people tend to be in their worst moods (highest negative affect and lowest positive affect) early in the week, and in their best moods (highest positive affect and lowest negative affect) late in the week. The negative affect tends to be highest on Mondays.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.43) Research suggests which of the following relationships exists between the weather and mood?A) moderately positive effectB) moderately negative effectC) strong positive effectD) strong negative effectE) limited or little effectAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Contrary to the prevailing cultural view, data indicates that people do not report a better mood on bright and sunny days (or, conversely, a worse mood on dark and rainy days). The weather has little effect on mood.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.44) Gerardo believes that every time he picks up a penny he is blessed with good fortune, due to the fact that the last time he picked up a penny he had a lottery win, and the time before that he got a big bonus at work. Gerardo’s perception is likely a product of a(n) ________.A) affect intensityB) high-positive affectC) emotional dimensionD) self-serving biasE) illusory correlationAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Illusory correlation is the tendency of people to associate two events when in reality there is no connection. It occurs when people associate two events that in reality have no connection.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.45) Jo has a job interview. Which of the following will have the least effect on her feelings on the day of the interview?A) sleep quality that Jo had the night beforeB) the amount Jo exercised on that dayC) Jo’s ageD) Jo’s genderE) the weather on the day of the interviewAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Contrary to the prevailing cultural view, data indicate that people do not report a better mood on bright and sunny days (or, conversely, a worse mood on dark and rainy days). Weather has little effect on mood.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.46) What effect do stressful events typically have on mood?A) short term positiveB) long term positiveC) short term positive but long term negativeD) negativeE) positiveAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Stressful daily events at work negatively affect moods. Stress never has a positive effect on mood.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.47) Which of the following statements is true regarding the sources of moods and emotions?A) Moods and emotions are independent of the personality of the individuals.B) Sleep quality affects mood.C) The weather strongly affects moods.D) As we grow older, we experience more negative emotions.E) People tend to be in their best moods on Sundays.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) Many people believe their mood is tied to the weather. However, a fairly large and detailed body of evidence conducted by multiple researchers suggests weather has little effect on mood, whereas sleep quality does affect mood.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.48) Which of the following statements is true about the difference between men and women when it comes to emotional reactions?A) Men are more emotionally expressive than women.B) Men experience emotions more intensely than women.C) Women express anger more frequently than men.D) Women tend to “hold onto” emotions longer than men.E) Men display positive emotions more frequently than women.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Evidence does confirm women are more emotionally expressive than men; they experience emotions more intensely, they tend to “hold onto” emotions longer than men, and they display more frequent expressions of both positive and negative emotions, except anger.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.49) Andy, Ben, Liza, Ted, and Jim are online customer service representatives. They have all been reprimanded by their boss. Andy is 24 years old. Ben is 46 years old. Liza is 45 years old. Ted is 26 years old. Jim is 35 years old. Who is least likely to be upset by the reprimand?A) AndyB) BenC) LizaD) TedE) JimAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Because Ben is older, and male, he is less likely to experience a high level of negative emotions. Younger people experience a higher number of negative emotions. Females experience higher levels of emotions.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.50) People tend to be in their best moods on Monday.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  People tend to be in their worst moods (highest negative affect and lowest positive affect) on Monday.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.51) Stress typically has a negative effect on mood.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Stressful daily events at work (a nasty e-mail, an impending deadline, the loss of a big sale, a reprimand from the boss) negatively affect moods. The effects of stress also build over time.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.52) Emotions are critical to rational thinking.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Emotions are critical to rational thinking. We must have the ability to experience emotions to be rational.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.53) Evidence confirms there is no real difference between men and women when it comes to emotional reactions.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Evidence does confirm women are more emotionally expressive than men; they experience emotions more intensely, they tend to “hold onto” emotions longer than men, and they display more frequent expressions of both positive and negative emotions, except anger. Thus, there are some gender differences in the experience and expression of emotions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.54) Men generally express anger more frequently than do women.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Anger is the one exceptional emotion that men express more frequently than women.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.55) Poor sleep can affect your job satisfaction and cause you to make less ethical judgments.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Poor sleep makes it difficult to control emotions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.56) Positive moods increase with age.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  According to Laura Carstensen, the peak of emotional life may not occur until the age of 70.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.57) Surface acting deals with felt emotions rather than displayed emotions.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Surface acting deals with displayed emotions, and deep acting deals with felt emotions. Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.58) Research has shown that Monday is the highest negative-affect day across most cultures. However, in some countries, negative affect is lower on Friday and Saturday than on Sunday. What are two explanations for this discrepancy?Answer:  While Sunday is enjoyable as a day off (and thus we have higher positive affect), we also get a bit stressed about the week ahead (which is why negative affect is higher).Diff: 3AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.59) Explain how stress affects emotions and moods.Answer:  Stress affects emotions and moods. For example, students have higher levels of fear before an exam, but their fear dissipates once the exam is over. At work, stressful daily events (a nasty e-mail, an impending deadline, the loss of a big sale, being reprimanded by your boss, and so on) negatively affect employees’ moods. Also, the effects of stress build over time. As the authors of one study note, “a constant diet of even low-level stressful events has the potential to cause workers to experience gradually increasing levels of strain over time.” Such mounting levels of stress and strain at work can worsen our moods, and we experience more negative emotions. Although sometimes we thrive on stress, for most of us, stress begins to take its toll on our mood.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.60) At what time of day are people in the best mood? Describe how mood changes throughout the day.Answer:  We often think that people differ, depending on whether they are “morning” or “evening” people. However, the vast majority of us follow the same pattern. Regardless of what time people go to bed at night or get up in the morning, levels of positive affect tend to peak around the halfway point between waking and sleeping. Negative affect, however, shows little fluctuation throughout the day. This basic pattern seems to hold whether people describe themselves as morning people or evening people.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.61) Discuss whether there are gender differences regarding emotions.Answer:  The common belief is that women are more emotional than are men. Is there any truth to this? The evidence does confirm that women are more emotionally expressive than are men; they experience emotions more intensely; they tend to “hold onto” emotions longer than men, and they display more frequent expressions of both positive and negative emotions, except anger. Although there may be innate differences between the genders, research suggests that emotional differences also are due to the different ways men and women have been socialized. Men are taught to be tough and brave. Showing emotion is inconsistent with this image. Women, in contrast, are socialized to be nurturing. For instance, women are expected to express more positive emotions on the job (shown by smiling) than men, and they do. Evidence from a study of participants from 37 different countries found that men consistently report higher levels of powerful emotions like anger, whereas women report more powerless emotions like sadness and fear.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.2 Identify the sources of emotions and moods.62) If an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions (irrespective of his true emotions), then it is known as ________.A) emotional laborB) negative affectC) positive affectD) emotional intelligenceE) deviant behaviorAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Emotional labor is defined as a situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work, meaning that his job demands a certain set of emotional responses, regardless of true feelings.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.63) ________ are the emotions that an individual is actually experiencing, despite what they might display.A) Felt emotionsB) Displayed emotionsC) Conditional emotionsD) Surface emotionsE) Disseminative emotionsAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions in contrast to displayed emotions or emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.64) Which of the following is an example of deep acting?A) Sonora smiles at her cubicle neighbor when she walks by even though his behavior annoys her.B) Andy tells his employee that he isn’t doing a good job and that he needs to shape up.C) Liz is worried about her sick dog, but makes her morning sales calls with a smile.D) David invites a coworker that he doesn’t like to lunch, in the hope of getting to know him better.E) Javier is angry at his boss so he calls in sick on Friday, the day the project is due, to get back at him.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Deep acting is trying to modify our true inner feelings based on display rules. David is trying to change his feelings toward his coworker by inviting him to lunch with the ambition of finding common ground when he gets to know him better.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.65) Ismael spent the morning in the field making sales calls. He called on four prospective clients and they all declined to purchase his company’s product. Ismael returned to the office stressed and exhausted. He has an hour and a half for lunch before he has to make a large sales presentation to a current client, which Ismael hopes will expand his account. Which of the following is most likely to be the best way for Ismael to spend his lunch hour?A) He should prepare his sales pitch data and graphics on the computer.B) He should practice his sales pitch orally with a coworker.C) He should go through the past sales orders placed by this client in order to better understand her requirements.D) He should rest and relax before the presentation.E) He should ask his boss to help him prepare the presentation.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Ismael spent the morning surface acting, and has to do it again in the afternoon. Research shows surface acting is more stressful to employees because it entails feigning their true emotions. A study that looked at how cheerleading instructors spent their breaks from teaching found those who used their breaks to rest and relax were more effective instructors after their breaks. Instructors who did chores during their breaks were only about as effective after their break as they were before.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.66) You are confronted by an angry customer who feels they deserve special treatment outside of your normal customer service policy. You know the customer is in the wrong but you can tell he is very upset. Which of the following is the appropriate reaction for you?A) maintain a sad expressionB) maintain a happy expressionC) maintain a pleasant expressionD) maintain a concerned expressionE) maintain an angry expressionAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Even though you know the customer is in the wrong, you must have maintaining good customer relations in mind. Because the customer wants you to be concerned, you must surface act by displaying a concerned expression, even though you most likely are angry that the customer is wasting your time.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.67) What do you call the practice of hiding inner feelings by modifying facial expressions?A) surface actingB) deep acting C) emotional intelligenceD) affective camouflageE) confirmation biasAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Surface acting is defined as hiding one’s inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules, or rather outwardly showing emotions that are different from those that are felt.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.68) Deep level acting is less psychologically costly than surface level acting because in deep level acting, we are actually trying to experience the emotion, so we ________.A) are not really actingB) find ways to channel the emotionC) experience less emotional exhaustionD) transfer the emotion to the other partyE) translate the emotion to something we already knowAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Because we are actually feeling the emotions, we do not have the additional emotional energy of acting and therefore have less emotional exhaustion.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.69) ________ is the act of objectively and deliberately evaluating our emotional situations in the moment.A) Deep level actingB) Surface level actingC) MindfulnessD) Emotional laborE) Emotional dissonanceAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Mindfulness is the act of objectively and deliberately evaluating our emotional situation in the moment.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.70) Surface acting deals with ________ emotions.A) negativeB) weak C) strongD) displayed E) felt Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Displayed emotions are those that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job. Therefore, a person engaging in surface acting is only revealing displayed emotions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.71) What term is used for those emotions that an organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job?A) felt emotionsB) displayed emotionsC) conditional emotionsD) required emotionsE) mandated emotionsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Displayed emotions are emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.72) What do you call the practice of modifying one’s true inner feelings based on display rules?A) surface actingB) deep actingC) emotional intelligenceD) affective camouflageE) confirmation biasAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Deep acting is trying to modify one’s true inner feelings based on display rules. A worker who smiles at a customer even when he doesn’t feel like it is surface acting.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.73) Which of the following statements is true regarding surface acting?A) Surface acting is hiding inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules.B) A health care provider trying to genuinely feel more empathy for her patients is surface acting.C) Research shows surface acting is less stressful to employees than deep acting.D) Surface acting deals with felt emotions as opposed to deep acting which deals with displayed emotions.E) Surface acting is trying to modify our true inner feelings based on display rules.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) Surface acting is hiding inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules. Surface acting deals with displayed emotions, and deep acting deals with felt emotions. Research shows surface acting is more stressful to employees because it entails feigning their true emotions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.74) Which of the following statements is true regarding deep acting?A) Deep acting is hiding inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules.B) A worker who smiles at a customer even when he doesn’t feel like it is deep acting.C) Deep acting deals with displayed emotions as opposed to surface acting.D) A health care provider trying to genuinely feel more empathy for her patients is deep acting.E) Research shows surface acting is less stressful to employees than deep acting.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Deep acting is trying to modify our true inner feelings based on display rules. A health care provider trying to genuinely feel more empathy for her patients is deep acting.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.75) If an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions, the employee is performing emotional labor.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  All jobs require a certain degree of emotional labor, or an employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work. Emotional labor means behaving in a way that may or may not be contrary to how a person is feeling, but is necessary for work.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.76) Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job are termed displayed emotions.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Displayed emotions are those that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.77) Displayed emotions are innate.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Displayed emotions are those that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job. They’re not innate; they’re learned.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.78) Research shows surface acting is more stressful to employees than deep acting.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Research shows surface acting is more stressful to employees because it entails feigning their true emotions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.79) Deep acting is hiding inner feelings by modifying facial expressions.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Deep acting is trying to modify one’s true inner feelings based on display rules. For example, a nurse who tries to empathize more with her patients is deep acting.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.80) What is the difference between felt emotions and displayed emotions?Answer:  You can better understand emotions if you separate them into felt versus displayed. Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions. In contrast, displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. The key point here is that felt and displayed emotions are often different.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.81) Zach is a pharmaceutical sales representative and must put on a smile every day at work with his clients. Discuss the emotional labor experienced by Zach. Explain the significance of emotional intelligence demanded of Zach in order to be successful, and how he applies his emotions and moods in his job.Answer:  Zach has to engage in surface acting on a daily basis. He has to smile and act positive regardless of his felt emotions in order to be successful. Certainly there will be times when Zach has emotional dissonance, or feels a disparity between his true emotions and how he must appear to his clients. Zach’s job would require a fair amount of rest and relaxation for him to continue to be successful. Zach uses his emotions and moods positively to guide his clients into making quick decisions in the purchase of his products. People in good moods tend to make quicker decisions. Zach also applies his moods to stay motivated, to walk out the door into the field every day. Each sale is a tiny negotiation and Zach must have a bit of a poker face, not letting the client know the true impact of the sale on his life. Finally, Zach applies his moods and positive emotions to provide excellent customer service to his clients. He spreads his good mood through emotional contagion and is able to get his customers to make larger orders and remain loyal to him in the competitive pharmaceutical industry.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  SynthesisLO:  4.3 Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.82) Rahael’s team was recently responsible for missing a major sales goal. According to the affective events theory, which of the following is most likely to occur?A) Rahael will become discouraged but will keep working harder for next time.B) Rahael will become discouraged and will start to dislike her job.C) Rahael will become more motivated but will start to dislike her job.D) Rahael will become more motivated and will keep working harder for next time.E) Rahael might react as stated in both A and D.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) According to the theory, employees react emotionally to events at work and this reaction influences their job performances. Dependent on whether Rahael reacts negatively or positively, the behavior in A and D are both possible.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  4.4 Describe affective events theory.83) People who score ________ on emotional stability are more likely to react strongly to ________ events.A) low; positiveB) low; negativeC) average; positiveD) average; negativeE) high; negativeAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Low emotional stability is strongly linked to sensitivity to negative events.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.4 Describe affective events theory.84) Diane Marshall is an office manager. Her awareness of her own and others’ emotions is almost nil. She’s moody and unable to generate much enthusiasm or interest in her employees. She doesn’t understand why employees get upset with her. She often overreacts to problems and chooses the most ineffectual responses to emotional situations. Diane has ________.A) high self-serving biasB) low emotional dissonanceC) low confirmation biasD) high cognitive dissonanceE) low emotional intelligenceAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Emotional intelligence or (EI) is a commonly accepted term based on three factors: a person’s ability to (1) be self-aware (to recognize her own emotions when she experiences them), (2) detect emotions in others, and (3) manage emotional cues and information.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.85) ________ indicates a person’s ability to be self-aware, detect emotions in others, and manage emotional cues and information.A) Emotional intelligenceB) Emotional dissonanceC) Confirmation biasD) Cognitive distortionE) Cognitive dissonanceAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Emotional intelligence, or EI, is a commonly accepted term based on three factors: a person’s ability to (1) be self-aware (to recognize her own emotions when she experiences them), (2) detect emotions in others, and (3) manage emotional cues and information. In general, people who know their emotions, or EI, are more effective.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.86) Which of the following statements is true regarding emotional intelligence (EI)?A) Evidence suggests that a person’s performance on the job is independent of her EI.B) Evidence suggests that EI is not genetically influenced.C) EI is related to a person’s ability to detect emotions in others.D) EI can be measured easily.E) EI is a simple, straightforward concept.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) EI is related to a person’s ability to detect emotions in others. People who know their own emotions and are good at reading emotion cues—for instance, knowing why they’re angry and how to express themselves without violating norms—are most likely to be effective.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.87) Which of the following is a correct argument in favor of emotional intelligence (EI)?A) EI accurately indicates linguistic abilities of a person.B) EI is a simple and straightforward concept.C) The concept of EI has a biological base.D) EI can be measured easily.E) The concept of EI is different from intelligence and personality.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) A study suggests EI is neurologically based in a way that’s unrelated to standard measures of intelligence. There is also evidence EI is genetically influenced, further supporting the idea that it measures a real underlying biological factor.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.88) Emotional intelligence (EI) is a concept that ________.A) can be measured easilyB) is moderately correlated with job performanceC) is not related to personality and intelligenceD) indicates mathematical aptitude of an individualE) is not genetically influencedAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Evidence suggests a high level of EI means a person will perform well on the job. A review of studies indicated that, overall, EI correlated moderately with job performance.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.89) Francine heads an ad agency and works with copywriters, artists, and designers to come up with effective branding solutions for new products. Why is it particularly important for Francine to keep her team happy?A) People are more conscientious when they are in a good mood.B) People tend to weigh all possible options rather than the most likely ones when they are in a good mood.C) People are less likely to use rules of thumb when they are in a good mood.D) People tend to search for perfect solutions when they are in a good mood.E) People are more creative when they are in a good mood.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) People in good moods tend to be more creative than people in bad moods. They produce more ideas and more options, and others think their ideas are original. To motivate her team at the ad agency to continue to come up with creative ideas for clients, Francine needs to keep them happy. Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.90) Julia is highly aware of her own and others’ emotions. She is good at reading emotional cues and knows how to express her emotions without violating organizational norms. This information indicates that Julia has ________.A) low cognitive dissonanceB) low self-esteemC) low emotional dissonanceD) high emotional intelligenceE) high job satisfactionAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Emotional intelligence, or EI, is a commonly accepted term based on three factors: a person’s ability to (1) be self-aware (to recognize her own emotions when she experiences them), (2) detect emotions in others, and (3) manage emotional cues and information.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.91) Amber and Emmet were recently hired by a marketing agency. While Amber is typically in a good mood always, Emmet appears to be depressed most of the time. Based on this information, what would you expect from Amber?A) She will take a great deal of time trying to make a good decision. B) She will have poor problem-solving skills.C) She will not be very creative when making decisions.D) She will find better solutions to problems.E) She will make poor decisions. Answer:  DExplanation:  D) People in good moods or experiencing positive emotions are more likely than others to use heuristics, or rules of thumb, to help make good decisions quickly. Positive emotions also enhance problem-solving skills, so positive people find better solutions to problems.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.92) Whether a candidate has high emotional intelligence would not be a significant factor when considering candidates for the job of a(n) ________.A) interviewer who assesses candidates in an employment agencyB) engineer heading a team designing a complex software/hardware interfaceC) meeting planner who must set up meetings for candidates around the worldD) copy editor who seeks out spelling errors and grammatical mistakes in manuscriptsE) realtor arranging sales between homeowners and potential buyersAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Because the basis of EI is the ability to detect emotions in others and to recognize emotional cues, jobs that require being around a lot of people and successfully interacting with them generally require a high EI. A copy editor does not necessarily need to interact with a great deal of people and would not need a high EI.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.93) One implication from the evidence on EI to date is that employers should consider it a factor in hiring employees, especially in jobs that demand ________.A) a high degree of social interactionB) good analytical skillsC) the ability to work independentlyD) good critical thinking skillsE) good mathematical skillsAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) One implication from the evidence on EI to date is that employers should consider it a factor in hiring employees, especially in jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.94) Evidence indicates that EI is genetically influenced.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Evidence indicates that EI is genetically influenced, further supporting the idea that it measures a real underlying biological factor.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.5 Describe emotional intelligence.95) Barry is angry at losing his job. In order to regulate his emotions, he can do all of the following except ________.A) focus on the problem at handB) think about pleasant thingsC) distract himselfD) engage in relaxation techniquesE) suppress negative thoughtsAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) One can engage in emotion regulation by identifying and modifying the emotions one feels. Strategies to change one’s emotions include thinking about more pleasant things, suppressing negative thoughts, distracting oneself, or engaging in relaxation techniques.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.6 Identify strategies for emotion regulation.96) Which of the following can be said to be true of emotion regulation?A) It takes effort to modify one’s feelings.B) It is easily achieved.C) It results in long-term positive emotions.D) It helps in building self-esteem.E) It has no negative effects.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) Though it might seem desirable to regulate your emotions, research suggests that changing your emotions takes effort, and this effort can be exhausting. Sometimes attempts to change an emotion actually make the emotion stronger by making you focus more on what scares you. Also, emotion suppression appears to be especially difficult to do effectively and can lead to more negative emotions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.6 Identify strategies for emotion regulation.97) Within organizational behavior, we are interested in ________ and ________ emotion regulation should be used in the workplace.A) whether; whenB) when; ifC) if; howD) how; how oftenE) how; whetherAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Emotional regulation is the act of identifying and modifying emotions and the ability to emotionally manage is a strong predictor of task performance and OCB.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.6 Identify strategies for emotion regulation.98) Judy has been having a very difficult time at work. Her supervisor is constantly making her work long hours and is usually very critical of her behavior. This constant negativity is taking a toll on Judy and she is starting to experience hatred toward her job. According to the theory of emotional regulation, Judy needs to do which of the following to control her spiraling emotions?A) Drink…a little alcohol count help her chill out.B) Exercise…get some endorphins going.C) Dance…a hobby is always a good diversion.D) Vent…letting it out clears the soul.E) Curse…a few choice words will help.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Open expression of emotions can often alleviate the negative emotions; however, this practice needs to be done with caution, as venting does affect other people.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  4.6 Identify strategies for emotion regulation.99) People who are ________ are less likely to be able to ________ their emotions.A) narcissistic; suppressB) neurotic; controlC) happy; controlD) sad; suppressE) confident; changeAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Individuals who score high in the category of neurotic often find their moods beyond their control.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.6 Identify strategies for emotion regulation.100) Which of the following statements is true regarding negotiation?A) A lack of emotion improves performance during negotiation.B) Feeling bad about your performance in a negotiation is likely to improve future performance.C) Displaying negative emotions, such as anger, is ineffective.D) Feeling bad about your performance appears to improve future negotiations.E) A negative emotional state enhances performance.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) Although moods and emotions have benefits at work, in negotiation, emotions may impair negotiator performance. Therefore, those lacking in emotion make the best negotiators.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.6 Identify strategies for emotion regulation.101) There is an inverse relationship between emotional regulation and diversity.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  The lower the amount of diversity, the more likely individuals are to employ emotional regulation to “fit in” with the group.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.6 Identify strategies for emotion regulation.102) Just before you deliver your big sales pitch, you find out that your dog has died. Why should you employ emotional suppression in this situation?Answer:  Emotional suppression allows one to temporarily counteract an emotion which might cause distress. In this case, the negative feeling regarding the dog should be repressed to keep the emotions from affecting the sales presentation.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.6 Identify strategies for emotion regulation.103) Some might argue that emotional regulation is an unethical behavior. Why might someone take this position?Answer:  Some might argue that emotional regulation is unethical because it requires a degree of acting which is, in essence, lying during a situationDiff: 2AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.6 Identify strategies for emotion regulation.104) The corporate office has determined that the company vision needs to be amended. What should corporate leaders do to increase the likelihood that employees will accept this change?A) arouse emotions and link them to an appealing visionB) demonstrate how the vision will better company profitsC) evoke empathy for the CEOD) negotiate with them and express angerE) motivate employees by putting them in a good moodAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Effective leaders rely on emotional appeals to help convey their messages. Corporate executives know emotional content is critical if employees are to buy into their vision of the company’s future and accept change. By arousing emotions and linking them to an appealing vision, leaders increase the likelihood that managers and employees alike will accept change.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.7 Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.105) Research suggests that people who are in a negative mood are more likely to ________ than someone who is in a positive mood.A) take higher risksB) take lower risksC) be emotionally voidD) make better decisionsE) make worse decisionsAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) While individuals in a negative mood may make more creative decisions, they are also more likely to make risky decisions when compared to those in a positive mood.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  4.7 Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.106) Henry is upset because his boss recently reprimanded him for missing a deadline. The boss put Henry on a probation period, causing him to lose his two days a week telecommuting privilege. Henry now has to work at the office five days a week. Which of the following is most likely to result from Henry’s negative attitude due to the reprimand?A) deviant workplace behaviorB) emotional contagionC) cognitive dissonanceD) positivity offsetE) distinction biasAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) People who feel negative emotions, particularly anger or hostility, are more likely than others to engage in deviant behavior at work. Henry is feeling angry about his reprimand and may take it out on the company somehow.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.7 Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.107) Evidence suggests people who feel negative emotions, particularly ________ or hostility, are more likely than others to engage in deviant behavior at work.A) nervousnessB) tensionC) angerD) stressE) depressionAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Evidence suggests people who feel negative emotions, particularly anger or hostility, are more likely than others to engage in deviant behavior at work.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.7 Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.108) Theresa is the manager of a production unit. Which of the following methods would likely be of the least use to improve her employees’ moods?A) use humorB) give employees tokens of appreciation for work they do wellC) hire positive employeesD) be in a good mood herselfE) arrange for employees to see funny videos at workAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) We can usually improve a friend’s mood by sharing a funny video clip, giving the person a small bag of candy, or even offering a pleasant beverage. But to improve employees’ moods, managers can use humor and give their employees small tokens of appreciation for work well done. Also, when leaders themselves are in good moods, group members are more positive, and as a result they cooperate better. Finally, selecting positive team members can have a contagion effect because positive moods transmit from team member to team member.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  4.7 Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.109) Positive emotions enhance problem-solving skills.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Positive emotions also enhance problem-solving skills, so positive people find better solutions to problems.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.7 Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.110) Studies indicate that emotional intelligence is moderately correlated with job performance.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Evidence suggests a high level of EI means a person will perform well on the job. A review of studies indicated that, overall, EI is moderately correlated with job performance.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  4.7 Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.111) Discuss the emotional labor experienced by a customer service executive. Explain how a worker’s emotional state can affect customer service and customers.Answer:  Most jobs require emotional labor, an employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work. A worker’s emotional state influences customer service, which influences levels of repeat business and levels of customer satisfaction.Providing quality customer service makes demands on employees because it often puts them in a state of emotional dissonance. Over time, this state can lead to job burnout, decline in job performance, and lower job satisfaction.In addition, employees’ emotions may also transfer to the customer. Studies indicate a matching effect between employee and customer emotions, an effect that is called emotional contagion, the “catching” of emotions from others. The primary explanation of emotional contagion is that when someone experiences positive emotions and laughs and smiles at you, you begin to copy that person’s behavior. So when employees express positive emotions, customers tend to respond positively. Emotional contagion is important because when customers catch the positive moods or emotions of employees, they shop longer. When an employee feels unfairly treated by a customer, for example, it’s harder for him to display the positive emotions his organization expects of him.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  4.7 Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.112) Elvira wants to hire three new customer service representatives. She is considering using a measure of EI to help select her new employees. Explain what EI is and how it could be useful to Elvira for the jobs that she’s hiring for, and the reasons why she should not depend entirely on the EI measures for her selection.Answer:  Emotional intelligence (EI) is a person’s ability to (1) be self-aware (to recognize her own emotions when she experiences them), (2) detect emotions in others, and (3) manage emotional cues and information. People who know their own emotions and are good at reading emotion cues, for instance, knowing why they’re angry and how to express themselves without violating norms, are most likely to be effective. One implication from the evidence on EI to date is that employers should consider it a factor in hiring employees, especially in jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction. Elvira is hiring for customer service, which requires a great deal of social interaction. Elvira should also consider that EI is hard to measure and is very vaguely defined so she should not entirely depend on EI measures for her selection.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  SynthesisLO:  4.7 Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.