Cancer biology

l inflammatory drugs or NSAIDS are a class of drugs that provide anti-pyretic and analgesic effects at low doses and anti-inflammatory effects at high doses. Aspirin, naproxen and ibuprofen are the most popular members of this group and are used all over the world for several reasons ranging from simple body pain and fevers to daily chemopreventive regimens for patients with cardiovascular diseases. NSAIDS inhibit the enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) which act as catalysts in the production of thromboxane and prostaglandins. Prostaglandins play a key role in the process of inflammation. While COX-1 is a part of a number of normal physiological processes, COX-2 is specifically used in the process of inflammation.
There are two main classes of NSAIDS available in the market, the non-selective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitors, which include aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen, and the selective COX-2 inhibitors, which include celecoxib. The most common long-term use of NSAIDS is in the case
of osteo-arthiritic pain where they not only act as analgesics but also reduce inflammation at joints. The most common adverse side effect of NSAIDS is the increased occurrence of gastric and duodenal ulcers with selective COX-2 inhibitors having lesser gastric effects but an increased suspected risk of myocardial infarction (Bombardier, et al., 2000).
COX-2 enzyme is the major link between NSAID use and cancer progression. While the origin of cancer is dependent upon multiple genetic changes which allow uncontrolled multiplication and resistance to apoptotic signals in cancerous cells, the progression of cancer relies upon ancillary processes that are not pathological on their own but are simply the human body’s response to allow repair of injured cells by maintaining homeostasis. One such process is inflammation. Inflammation on its own is an orchestrated effort of human immune system to defend cells against microbes and allow optimum conditions for cellular