BUS 682 TEST 3 Chapters 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 Chapter 7 Essay Questions1. How can an individual employee potentially mitigate the onset and effects of downsizing? (page 231-232)2. What are the four types of workplace violence? (page 236)(1) crimes committed by strangers and intruders in the workplace(2) acts committed by nonemployees, such as customers, patients, students, and clients(3) violence committed by coworkers(4) incidences involving those with a personal relationship with an employee3. How is quid pro quo sexual harassment different from hostile work environment harassment? (page 240)A type of sexual extortion where there is proposed or explicit exchange of job benefits for sexual favors. Hostile work environment harassment Less direct than quid pro quo harassment, it involves epithets, slurs, negative stereotyping, intimidating acts, graphic materials that show hostility toward an individual or group, and other types of conduct that affect the employment situation. Unlike quid pro quo cases, one incident may not justify a legal claim4. What is workplace diversity, and why might a firm embrace diversity? (pages 245-247)Workplace diversity is focuses on recruiting and retaining a diverse workforce as a business imperative.5. Why would an organization strive to become an employer of choice? (pages 252-254) What are employees’ responsibilities to their employers? (Pages 224-227)Psychological Contract, Communications, via interactions with managers and coworkers. Especially important for new employees who are trying to make sense of their new roles. Perceptions of the corporate culture are often formed by watching management and leadership. When promises and expectations are not met, a psychological contract breach occurs and employees may become less loyal, inattentive to work, or otherwise dissatisfied with the employment situation. Career development opportunities deserve more attention from managers to strengthen the psychological contract and provide incentives for employee retention How have employment laws affected employee/employer relationships in areas such as wages and benefits, health and safety, and equal opportunity? (pages 232-238)Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA)  1970: Sought to ensure safe and healthy working conditions for all employees by providing specific standards that employers must meetOSHA proposed rules to increase employer responsibility for ergonomics, the design, arrangement, and use of equipment to maximize productivity and minimize fatigue and physical discomfortChapter 8 Essay Questions8. “The customer is always right.” Explain why this well-known saying is not really true. (pages 263-265)9. How has consumerism affected public policy over the past four decades? (pages 273-274)10. What concerns about the right to privacy has the Internet raised? (page 277)11. How can a firm use philanthropy to enhance relationships with consumers? (pages 278-279) Discuss the various types of consumer fraud. What are the ramifications of consumer fraud on organizations? (pages 263-265) Discuss how consumers are stakeholders and their influence on organizations. (pages 262-263) Describe how the FTC affects consumers through legal issues. (pages 266-268) How does product liability effect businesses and its relationship with consumers? (pages 271-272) What challenges do firms face while implementing responsibilities to consumers? (pages 280-281)Chapter 7 Essay Questions1. Describe the transformation of the employee-employer contract over the past century. (pages 225-229)Look at the ppt2. What are some issues to be considered before embarking on the downsizing process? (pages 229-232)The organization should commit to assisting employees who must make a career transition as a result of the reduction process. To make the transition productive for employees, this assistance should begin as soon as management is aware of possible reductions. ●Through the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN), U.S. employers are required to give at least 60 days’ advance notice if a layoff will affect 500 or more employees or more than one-third of the work- force.Issue i.External factors also play a role in how quickly employees find new work and affect perceptions of a firm’s decision to downsize.ii. Companies must be willing to accept the consequences of terminating employees. The years of knowledge, skills, relationships, and commitment that employees develop cannot be easily replaced or substituted.iii. Although workforce reduction is a corporate decision, it is also important to recognize the potential role of employees in these decisions. Define the various types of sexual harassment and discuss how socially responsible organizations can train their staff to avoid these situations? (pages 239-242)Chapter 10 Essay Questions(no need)4. Describe how the internet has impacted society. (pages 328-331)Not only changing many traditional products, such as books and music, but also the way in which we conduct everyday issues. Each advance in technology seems to lead to new developments across industries. Sometimes making things more convenient. Relates to the broad nature of technology as it moves through society. Every community in both developed and developing countries has been influenced by cellular and wireless telephones. Web conferencing and video conferencing are becoming more popular alternatives, although it may be difficult for technology to fully replace the nature of face-to-face encounters5. How successful have privacy policies been in ensuring consumers that websites are safe? (pages 331-339)6. What is the future outlook for biotechnology? (page 344-349)7. What is cloning and what are its possible applications? (pages 345-346)8. How have the internet and other technology affected productivity and trust in the workplace? (pages 390-391)9. How have concerns over intellectual property changed with the growth of the internet? Discuss the effectiveness of policies in protecting intellectual properties. (pages 339-343)10. Discuss the arguments for and against genetically modified foods? (pages 347-349)Chapter 11: Sustainability Issues1. How does sustainability relate to social responsibility? (pages 361-362)In very basic terms, corporate social responsibility refers to a firms actions towards creating some benefit to society for example, creating jobs, reducing pollution, ect. And corporate sustainability typically refers to the firms goal as far as profitability, efficient productivity, and other factors that relate to the business aspect and ensures company growth.2. What are the negative effects caused by air pollution? (pages 363-364)The World Health Organization states that 2.4 million people die each year from causes directly attributable to air pollution, with 1.5 million of these deaths attributable to indoor air pollution. majority of respiratory disease cause by air pollution e.g. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include diseases such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and some forms of asthma. Direct causes of air pollution related deaths include aggravated asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lung and heart diseases, and respiratory allergies. many heart disease also due to air pollution.3. What factors have contributed to increased concerns about the available quantities of water? (pages 370-371)4. What is urban sprawl, and what negative environmental impacts have resulted because of it? (page 374-375)5. Describe the advantages and disadvantage of different forms of alternative energy. (385-389)6. How should a company address stakeholder concerns about environmental issues? (pages 389-392)A company should always address all stakeholder concerns by analyzing each one for validity. Once a valid complaint is recognized the company must take appropriate measures that satisfy their expectations while meeting the requirements of environmental protection agencies and legislation. Some of the different ways a company can address environmental issues is to seek alternative energy sources, reduce air, water, and land pollution, control waste management, or anything else that disrupts the ecosystem and damages the natural environment. Companies are coming up with creative ways to address these issues not only to boost morale in the workplace, build trust with stakeholders, and build a high level of social responsibility and reputation between its stakeholders but also because it may actually be more cost efficient for the company, increasing revenues and reducing costs7. How have such issues as land pollution, waste management, and deforestation impacted organizations and industries? (pages 371-373)8. What is land pollution? How is it related to the Greenhouse Effect? P. 371-3729. Why is the Endangered Species Act controversial? P. 383 10. What are genetically modified plants and the genetic engineering of animal cells? p. 376Chapter 12: 1. What role does cultural intelligence play in a company’s success in managing stakeholder issues in a global environment? (pages 404-406 )Cultural Intelligence plays an important role in a company’s success in managing stakeholder issues in a global environment as it is important to have the ability to handle the cultural differences and formulate strategies and policies for ensuring interests of the stakeholders are considered and well addressed. It will improve the team effectiveness, participation and performance as it will foster a positive environment to work.2. Identify and discuss the goals and strategies of the four types of partnerships for development. (pages 419-423)The four types of partnerships can be identified as Business partnerships, Corporate Social Responsibility partnerships, Corporate Accountability partnerships, Social Economic partnerships. The goals of Business partnerships are to improve the efficiency of the business and provide and products and services to public to earn profitability on their investments. The strategies used by them are to invest in sectors that have demand in market and share resources with private and public companies in order to have capital gains from these partnerships. The profit maximization goal is achieved by using different strategies like technology, competition, resource development and asset acquisition.3. What is fair trade and why is it an example of consumer relations in regards to social responsibility in a global environment? (414-415)Fair trade is a trading partnership based on dialogue, transparency, and respect that seeks greater equity international trade and contributes to sustainable development4. What distinguishes cooperatives from traditional businesses? (page 421-422)Cooperatives are distinguished from traditional businesses as cooperatives are democratically owned and often conduct their business operations without any profit goals with aim of distribution of goods and services to their communities following trade and business accountability standards. Traditional businesses may have ownership like families or groups investing their money for earning profit or gains from their business and their business operations may vary in different fields unlike cooperatives to focus on specific community needs.5. Describe stakeholder issues that are likely to be present when planning and conducting business outside of a company’s home country. (pages 406-408)6. How do the difference between countries employment standards and expectations effect companies conducting business around the world? (pages 410-413)7. What does the Fair Trade label signify? P. 4148. What is the purpose of microcredit? P. 4209. What is a subculture in comparison with the dominant culture? P. 40610. Define free trade and fair trade. How are they different? P. 414