Brain and Mind Coursework

For dysarthria however, the person can remember the words and how to speak, how to read, or how to write the words, but due to motor affectations in his motor-speech system, he cannot speak the words (Duffy, 2005). Where dysarthria refers to the improper or poor articulation of words or phonemes, aphasia refers to the disorder in the content of the language. Cognitive language is not affected, but the difficulty in speaking the words is based on motor muscles neurologically impaired (Duffy, 2005). Due to lesions in the motor cortex, there would also likely be impairment in respirations, resonance, as well as phonation, and articulation causing issues in the patients’ intelligibility, audibility, and vocal communication (Duffy, 2005). 2. Why was lobotomy administered on a wide scale between 1950 and 1970? Lobotomy was administered on a wide scale between 1950 and 1970 because at that time, mental health and the neurological functions were not adequately understood (McManamy, 2011). Although lobotomies were first performed on humans in the 1890s, it was considered a strong and effective remedy for many years after (McManamy, 2011). It reached widespread use in the 1940s and 1950s simply because there were no alternative forms of treatment at that time. Lobotomies were also considered an effective remedy in order to eliminate many social issues linked to mental health issues, including the overcrowding of mental health institutions and the rising cost of mental health care (Tartakovsky, 2011). There were about 40,000 to 50,000 lobotomies carried out from 1936 and on to the late 1950s. They became popular interventions because Freeman, the Father of lobotomy believed that these lobotomies were effective forms of treatment. He explained that this procedure cut of connections between the frontal lobes and the thalamus, thought to control human emotions which mental health professionals, at that time, believed to be in abundance among the mentally ill (McManamy, 2011). By the 1970s, these beliefs were discredited and when other forms of treatment were made available, lobotomies were soon banned from the mental health practice. 3. You are in the MRI scanner room and on the control room console you see activations of the hand region of the motor cortex in a participant’s being scanned. Does it automatically mean that the participant is moving? Justify your answer. This does not automatically mean that the participant is moving. In instances where a patient mentally stimulates an activity, the corresponding area stimulated would also indicate a response (Mao, et.al., 1998). This is often seen in paralyzed patients where electrodes would be implanted in some regions in the brain in order to detect responses, stimulate communication, and yes or no responses. A yes/no communication can be triggered based on brain activity by detecting electrical responses from the electrode implants in the brain (Mao, et.al., 1998). As the patient mentally makes yes or no responses, the corresponding areas of the brain would manifest some activity (Mao, et.al., 1998). For a patient having an MRI, the patient mentally thinking of moving his hand would likely trigger some form of activation in the hand region, even without the hand actually moving. The activation of the motor cortex would indicate that even if patients are not moving, they still have motor control. Moreover, motor imagery and actual motor