AP Biology for Dummies

Replication takes place in the nucleus of the cell. The raw materials for the process are nucleotides, RNA primer, and enzyme DNA polymerase whereas the end product is double-stranded DNA. Translation, on the other hand, takes place in the nucleus. The raw materials are a DNA strand that acts as a template, enzyme RNA polymerase whereas the end product is a messenger RNA (mRNA) strand. This process takes place in the ribosomes. Translation requires mRNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), enzyme aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, and amino acids thereafter giving proteins as the final products.
DNA replication, transcription, and translation take place in all living cells except the red blood cells because they do not contain nuclei. These processes are fundamental in humans because they ensure the continuity of life through maintaining the integrity of the genome. They also ensure that physiological processes take place normally because the proteins produced serve numerous functions in the body.
2. The Importance of the Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder during Digestion
The liver, pancreas, and gall bladder carry out the same function of conveying digestive substances to the duodenum. The liver secretes bile juice, which contains bile salts that emulsify fat droplets, increasing their surface area and making it easy for digestive enzymes to work on them. Bile, in addition, increases the alkalinity of the stomach fluids thus making the environment favorable for digestive enzymes (The liver, gallbladder, and pancreas: The digestive system and the liver. (n.d.).
The gallbladder stores bile, which is secreted in the liver. During storage, the gallbladder concentrates and thickens the bile making it more efficient during the digestive process.
The pancreas, on the other hand, secretes various digestive enzymes. These enzymes get into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct. The pancreatic enzymes are vital for digestion and include the pancreatic amylase that breaks down carbohydrates, pancreatic lipase that breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol molecules. The pancreas also produces enzymes trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen that are responsible for the digestion of proteins. The pancreas secretes these two enzymes in inactive forms. The ductal cells of the pancreas also exude bicarbonate ions that neutralize the acidity of chyme from the stomach.