Anatomy of an Internet Routing Protocol

The researcher states that it is crucial to delivering the idea behind subnetting via fundamental binary representation yet, a majority of texts are present in binary terms for the procedure of subnetting. This makes subnetting difficult for the students to understand and learn without any tables or reference materials. Therefore, in this article easy, simple and alternative technique is illustrated exclusively of the use of calculators, software, tables, and others in order to understand subnetting. The understanding of binary arithmetic such as powers of 2 from 0 to 8 (2x for x = 0, 1, ….. 8) is necessary. The entire process is easy and simple if the little knowledge regarding binary arithmetic is achieved. In fact, this article is made for the readers who are supposed to have some knowledge regarding the use of subnetting, IP addressing and the function of a subnet mask. Here simple and easy techniques are explained from the short introduction till the detailed discussion related to the subnets and hosts, subnet mask calculation, formatting (sub) network ids and the availability of IP addresses for every subnet. This technique is very helpful for the students as, well as the professionals who are seeking an easy way to understand subnetting methods. In recent years the importance of subnetting is revealed in different ways. Therefore, for every learner, it is important to have sound knowledge regarding TCP/IP subnetting. In the routed network, the performance of a network is improved via broadcast domains and by splitting up collisions. The outsized networks can be structured by considering its departmental, geographical, functional and other related partitions. For this reason, the access can be achieved via other routers and can be configured while applying security restrictions. In addition, subnetting also acts as a tool that allows supporting security policies. Since handing over the administrative duties and separating large networks into subnets it is easy for every subnet to manage effortlessly. The WAN link that is joining the two networks needs a router in order to divide a subnet. The capability to recognize network design requires sound knowledge regarding subnetting. Moreover, troubleshooting, diagnosing and problem fixing in TCP/IP internetwork needs proper expertise in subnetting. If the underlying binary mathematics is not understood properly there is a chance of unsuccessful subnetting implementation. Likewise, it is also complicated to understand the fundamentals of subnetting without having familiarity regarding binary arithmetic, logic and binary/decimal conversations. However, in order to plan, design and apply easy subnetting it is possible without underlying binary. 2. Evaluating routing protocols a. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) As per network dictionary it is defined as Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a standard for exchange of routing information among gateways and hosts. This protocol is most useful as an interior gateway protocol. It is also knows as Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). Frame Relay protocol is implemented for WAN networks associated with LAN internetworking. It functions on physical layer and data link layer of the OSI model, to endow with robust and efficient mechanism for transmitting data. The transmission encompasses multiple routers and switches.