You must reference the book in your essay and cite in APA format in order to earn points.Length requirement: 2 or more paragraphs.Purpose: To demonstrate competence in writing at the collegiate level. In addition, this essay will allow the student to demonstrate appropriate use of equity terminology, comprehension of issues surrounding diversity, and analyze issues of inclusion.OPTION 1.EDIT to emphasize extreme importance:Please remember, as Gilio-Whitaker explains, to focus on how Native peoples survive and thrive today. This is part of changing the narrative that wants to paint the picture that Native peoples no longer exist.***Article 35 of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, states “Indigenous peoples have the right to promote, develop and maintain their institutional structures and their distinctive customs, spirituality, traditions, procedures, practices and, in the cases they exist, juridical systems or customs, in accordance with international human rights standards.” Research one Indigenous community. For example, you might write about Multnomah, Kathlamet, Clackamas, Tumwater, Watlala bands of the Chinook, the Tualatin Kalapuya, and many other Indigenous nations of the Columbia River. You might choose an Indigenous community anywhere in the world such as the Maasai from what is now known as Kenya and Tanzania, Māori in New Zealand, Kānaka Maoli (Hawaiian people), Quechua in the Central Andes, Buryats in Siberia, Lakota, Diné(Navajo People), Anishinaabe, etc. Citing strong sources such as United Nations documents, journal articles or official tribal websites, write about their distinctive customs and practices, their relationship with the environment, and threats and challenges to their sovereignty. OPTION 2: Environmental justice considerations of COVID-19 Contains unread posts Moderated. You must reference the book in your essay and cite in APA format in order to earn points. Length requirement: 2 or more paragraphs. Purpose: To demonstrate competence in writing at the collegiate level. In addition, this essay will allow the student to demonstrate appropriate use of equity terminology, comprehension of issues surrounding diversity, and analyze issues of inclusion. OPTION 2. How can we think about COVID-19 as an environmental (in)justice issue? If we can identify where injustice lies, can we work to resolve it? In this essay, consider the fact that the primary way to avoid contracting COVID-19 is by frequently washing one’s hands.EDIT for clarity:Consider one or more of the following topics or add your own concern.Does everyone haveaccess to clean water? Do people experiencing homelessness, prisoners, or certain communities have less access to sanitation than others? If some consumers hoard bottled water, will the price increase for people who need it? Also, if we are focused on COVID-19, what happens if there is a flood or other natural disaster – what kind of response will be available? Who is able to respond and who is more at risk? If the media is distracted by COVID-19 news, will projects like Jordan Cove be passed with less protest? Will non-profits who advocate for environmental rights, which are “non-essential jobs” shut down and lay off workers? Who will make sure the Clean Water Act and environmental assessments are enforced? Which companies are shutting off utilities for people who are sick. laid off or otherwise can’t pay their bills? Are women disproportionately impacted as nurses, caregivers, or in some other way tied to the environment, biology, ecology, or biotechnology? Cite strong sources. Sustainable Development Goals Contains unread posts Moderated. You must reference the book in your essay and cite in APA format in order to earn points. Length requirement: 2 or more paragraphs. Purpose: To demonstrate competence in writing at the collegiate level. In addition, this essay will allow the student to demonstrate appropriate use of equity terminology, comprehension of issues surrounding diversity, and analyze issues of inclusion. OPTION 5: In 1987, The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) published a document called “Our Common Future” which has become known as the Brundtland Report after chairwoman Gro Harlem Brundtland. In it, they define sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Working from this definition, the international community has adopted numerous plans of action to improve human lives and protect the environment across the globe, such as Agenda 21 and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In 2015, 17 Sustainable Development Goals were adopted at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. The goals are to radically reduce poverty “in all their forms and dimensions” by 2030. In this essay, choose one Sustainable Development Goal. Consider how achieving the goal would ensure that people can “fulfill their potential in dignity and equality in a healthy environment” or what barriers would be faced. Consider how achieving the goal would “protect the planet from degradation” through including production and consumption, in order to meet future needs or how it may be compromised. Consider how achieving the goal would “ensure that economic progress can occur in harmony with nature” or not. Next, answer how should the specific concerns of youth (ages 35 and below) be addressed by the Sustainable Development Goal you chose? Don’t forget to cite your sources. OPTION 3: The Principles of Environmental Justice Contains unread posts Moderated. You must reference the book in your essay and cite in APA format in order to earn points.Length requirement: 2 or more paragraphs. Purpose: To demonstrate competence in writing at the collegiate level. In addition, this essay will allow the student to demonstrate appropriate use of equity terminology, comprehension of issues surrounding diversity, and analyze issues of inclusion. OPTION 3: Read the 17 Principles of Environmental Justice below. Choose one principle and write a clear and organized essay to give an example of this principle from the book or other outside material. “Decontextualization” is the ability to extrapolate a concept learned in one context and transfer that learning to another context and is a feature of collegiate writing. Decontextualize the principle that you choose by 1) stating the principle, 2) interpreting what the principle means to you, 3) describing the example, and 4) explaining how the principle was met or violated in your example. Finish your essay by describing the patterns or themes that emerge and what can be extrapolated or extended to other places or situations? Cite strong sources. WE, THE PEOPLE OF COLOR, gathered together at this multinational People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, to begin to build a national and international movement of all peoples of color to fight the destruction and taking of our lands and communities, do hereby re-establish our spiritual interdependence to the sacredness of our Mother Earth; to respect and celebrate each of our cultures, languages and beliefs about the natural world and our roles in healing ourselves; to ensure environmental justice; to promote economic alternatives which would contribute to the development of environmentally safe livelihoods; and, to secure our political, economic and cultural liberation that has been denied for over 500 years of colonization and oppression, resulting in the poisoning of our communities and land and the genocide of our peoples, do affirm and adopt these Principles of Environmental Justice: The Principles of Environmental Justice (EJ) 1) Environmental Justice affirms the sacredness of Mother Earth, ecological unity and the interdependence of all species, and the right to be free from ecological destruction. 2) Environmental Justice demands that public policy be based on mutual respect and justice for all peoples, free from any form of discrimination or bias. 3) Environmental Justice mandates the right to ethical, balanced and responsible uses of land and renewable resources in the interest of a sustainable planet for humans and other living things. 4) Environmental Justice calls for universal protection from nuclear testing, extraction, production and disposal of toxic/hazardous wastes and poisons and nuclear testing that threaten the fundamental right to clean air, land, water, and food. 5) Environmental Justice affirms the fundamental right to political, economic, cultural and environmental self-determination of all peoples. 6) Environmental Justice demands the cessation of the production of all toxins, hazardous wastes, and radioactive materials, and that all past and current producers be held strictly accountable to the people for detoxification and the containment at the point of production. 7) Environmental Justice demands the right to participate as equal partners at every level of decisionmaking, including needs assessment, planning, implementation, enforcement and evaluation. 8) Environmental Justice affirms the right of all workers to a safe and healthy work environment without being forced to choose between an unsafe livelihood and unemployment. It also affirms the right of those who work at home to be free from environmental hazards. 9) Environmental Justice protects the right of victims of environmental injustice to receive full compensation and reparations for damages as well as quality health care. 10) Environmental Justice considers governmental acts of environmental injustice a violation of international law, the Universal Declaration On Human Rights, and the United Nations Convention on Genocide. 11) Environmental Justice must recognize a special legal and natural relationship of Native Peoples to the U.S. government through treaties, agreements, compacts, and covenants affirming sovereignty and self-determination. 12) Environmental Justice affirms the need for urban and rural ecological policies to clean up and rebuild our cities and rural areas in balance with nature, honoring the cultural integrity of all our communities, and provided fair access for all to the full range of resources. 13) Environmental Justice calls for the strict enforcement of principles of informed consent, and a halt to the testing of experimental reproductive and medical procedures and vaccinations on people of color. 14) Environmental Justice opposes the destructive operations of multi-national corporations. 15) Environmental Justice opposes military occupation, repression and exploitation of lands, peoples and cultures, and other life forms. 16) Environmental Justice calls for the education of present and future generations which emphasizes social and environmental issues, based on our experience and an appreciation of our diverse cultural perspectives. 17) Environmental Justice requires that we, as individuals, make personal and consumer choices to consume as little of Mother Earth’s resources and to produce as little waste as possible; and make the conscious decision to challenge and reprioritize our lifestyles to ensure the health of the natural world for present and future generations.